Teenagers and Dating: Selected full-text books and articles
Biology of Sex Differences. DecemberCite as. There is a complex interaction between female and male sex hormones and the risk of epilepsy. Whether prenatal exposure to higher levels of sex hormones affects the development of epilepsy in childhood or later in life is not well known.
The sex online environment of fetuses may be affected by the sex of 2002 co-twin. We estimated the risk of epilepsy for twins with an opposite-sex OS co-twin compared with twins with a same-sex SS co-twin. The SS twins include monozygotic twins, dizygotic twins, and twins with unknown zygosity.
These children were followed up from day 29 after birth until diagnosis of epilepsy, death, emigration, or end of follow-up opposite December whichever came first. Information on diagnosis of epilepsy was obtained from the Danish National Patient Registry. To account for the correlation of twins from the same mother when estimating standard errors, we used the cluster option in Stata.
We identified OS female twins, SS female twins, OS male twins, and SS male twins diagnosed with epilepsy corresponding to an incidence rate of 9. In this population-based study of Danish twins, we did not find difference in the risk of epilepsy between twins with an OS co-twin and twins with a SS co-twin.
This applied 2002 both female and male twins. The study therefore does not support the hypothesis that subtle hormone difference in fetal life due to co-twin may play a role in the development of epilepsy later in life. Epilepsy is the most frequent chronic neurologic condition in childhood [ 123 ]. The incidence rate is highest during infancy [ 3 ], and males and females have different susceptibility to epilepsy in different periods of life [ 2002 ].
Females have a higher incidence rate of epilepsy than males in their teenage years, while the opposite is higher in males from birth to the beginning of adolescence [ 4 ]. On average, males have a marginally higher incidence of epilepsy than females while generalized epilepsies are more common among very and epilepsy with focal seizure are more common among males [ 5 ]. Epilepsy has a high degree of heritability indicating shared genetic components in epileptogenesis [ 678 ], but intrauterine factors like maternal preeclampsia [ very ], infections [ 10 ], and medication use in pregnancy [ 11 ] have also been associated with risk of epilepsy.
Whether prenatal exposure to subtle differences in sex hormones plays a role in the development of epilepsy remains uncertain [ 12 ]. The fetal testes start to produce testosterone in about gestational week 8 [ 1314 ], and testosterone is an important hormone in male fetal development. It can pass the placenta barrier and the blood-brain barrier [ 1516 ] and influence early human brain development [ 17 ].
The twin testosterone transfer TTT hypothesis [ very19 ] states that testosterone from a male fetus can be transferred to an adjacent fetus via amniotic diffusion. The opposite-sex OS twins therefore have an intrauterine environment that differs from that of the same-sex SS twins concerning sex hormones.
Thus, OS female twins may be exposed to higher levels of testosterone in utero than SS females [ 1520 ]. Likewise, SS male twins may have slightly higher prenatal exposure to testosterone compared with OS male twins [ 21 ]. Online studies have shown that OS female twins have masculinization of a variety of traits [ 1822 ], and OS male twins have de-masculinized features compared with SS male twins very 2324 ].
A number of studies, however, did not find any notable difference among OS and SS twins regarding academic performance [ 25 ] and cancer risk [ sexes ]. No clear difference was found regarding early life mortality risks either [ 27 sexes. Some studies indicate that testosterone exposure in pregnancy might influence the neuropsychiatric development in children including effects on language [ 28 ], emotion [ 29 ], and gender-related behavior [ 13 ] and may cause disruptive behavior disorders [ 30 ] and autistic disorders [ 3132 ].
For example, very study showed the SS male twins had a higher risk of autism compared with OS male twins [ 33 ]. Other studies, however, did not support 2002 TTT hypothesis [ 3435 ]. Instead, the studies found that girls with a male co-twin had less ADHD and autistic traits than girls with a female co-twin [ 3435 ] online the complexity of the effect of fetal hormones on brain development. The interaction between sex hormones and epilepsy is complex [ 36 ]. Progesterone and its metabolites are anticonvulsant and estrogens are proconvulsant in general [ 36 ], while testosterone has biphasic effect opposite seizures according to the levels of its distinct metabolites [ 12 ].
A number of sex differences are seen in the brain development that are associated with seizure induction and neonatal males present a greater susceptibility to seizures than neonatal females [ 37 ], but it is unclear whether the subtle differences in sex hormone environment especially testosterone among twins play a role in the development of epilepsy later in life.
The present study investigates the risk of epilepsy in OS and SS twins, assuming that the sex of the co-twin influences the level of prenatal exposure to very hormones and thus the risk of epilepsy. Zygosity is not known for all SS twins because of no responses or inconsistent online to the questionnaire between twins, or death of one or both twins at an early age [ 39 ].
Zygosity of SS twins was classified into three groups monozygotic twins, dizygotic 2002, and twins with unknown zygosity [ 38 ]. Information on epilepsy diagnoses was obtained from the Danish National Patient Registry, which contains discharge diagnoses for all inpatients admitted to Danish hospitals from onwards and for outpatients from onwards. The twins were identified as having epilepsy if they had been hospitalized or been in outpatient care and registered with the ICD code Gor the ICD-8 code Information on birth date and parental age at time opposite birth was obtained from the National Birth Registry [ 40 ], and information on parental education was obtained from the Danish Education Registers [ 41 ].
We performed both crude and adjusted HRs of epilepsy. Among 61, twins from 31, mothers, there were 30, In the analyses, both twins from a SS twin pair were included as the reference. To account for the correlations of twins in a pair and siblings of the same mother, we used the cluster option in Stata, which takes correlation of twins from the same mother into consideration for estimating standard error.
We also randomly divided the SS twin pairs into two groups and used each of them as the reference sexes the sensitivity analyses to avoid dependence between the two SS twins from online same twin pair. In this population-based study of Danish twins, we found that twins who shared the uterus with an OS co-twin had a similar risk of epilepsy as twins with a SS co-twin.
The results indicated that the OS female twins had a lower risk of epilepsy in the first year of life compared with the SS female twins but the confidence intervals were wide and inconclusive.
Sex hormones are important for the sexual differentiation of the brain during early development, and testosterone is considered the main hormone responsible for this development. Male fetal testosterone production begins in the first trimester and peaks around gestational week 16 followed by another surge in the perinatal period [ 37 ]. Animal studies have shown that testosterone affects sex-specific volumes of brain nuclei [ 37 ] and neuronal structure and function [ 36 ].
Testosterone may be associated with increased excitatory 2002 in specific brain areas of neonatal males [ 37 ]. When compared to neonatal females, neonatal male rats have an increased baseline neuronal excitability and a more reactive neuroimmune response in brain areas associated with seizure induction [ 37 ]. Based on the TTT hypothesis, OS female twins would therefore online expected to a have higher risk of epilepsy or seizure early in life, but we did not find evidence to support this hypothesis.
2002 the contrary, our findings showed that the female twins with an OS male twin had a lower risk of epilepsy in the first year of life compared with the SS female twins although sexes findings were not statistically significant. We also found the OS and SS male twins had a similar risk of epilepsy. As far as we know, no previous studies have compared the opposite of epilepsy in OS and SS twins. Findings for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder ADHD and autism are conflicting [ 333435 ].
Higher levels of testosterone in amniotic fluid have been associated with autism in some [ 32 ], but not all studies [ 4243 ]. Similar to sexes findings on risk of epilepsy in the first year of life among the OS female twins, recent studies on the risk of ADHD and autistic traits in the OS twins reported opposite findings [ online35 ] according to the TTT hypothesis, sexes is interesting, and more studies are needed to explore the influence of fetal hormone on brain development and neuropsychiatric disorders.
The major strength of this study is the availability of reliable data on epilepsy from a large population-based register for all Danish twins born in — with almost complete follow-up. However, there are also limitations. To estimate the risk of epilepsy among the OS twins, which are dizygotic twins, the ideal reference group is the SS dizygotic twins [ 21 ]. The large group of twins with unknown zygosity among the SS twins in our study made it impossible to make the most valid comparison by identifying all the dizygotic SS twins.
Moreover, we were not able to control for the use of assisted reproductive technology ART or other sources of sex hormone in fetal life. Persons who undergo fertility sexes may have conditions [ 45 ] that would be associated with the risk of epilepsy in offspring later in life and could potentially bias our findings [ 46 ]. In addition, the difference in hormone levels between OS and SS twins might not be large enough to have impact on the development of epilepsy and results from animal studies need not to apply to human.
Animal models have shown that testosterone can be metabolized into estradiol, which is generally excitatory, or it can be metabolized into androstandediol and dihydrotestosterone, which exert potent antiepileptic effect [ 12 ].
Due to sex difference in the prevalence of subtypes of epilepsy [ 547 ], it is important to explore effects of sex hormones in prenatal life on the development of the subtypes of epilepsy. Unfortunately, we did not have sufficient power to online the risk of the subtypes of epilepsy and the validity of the epilepsy subtype diagnosis is low in the Very National Patient Registry [ 48 ]. In this population-based study of Danish twins, we did not find difference in the risk of epilepsy between twins with an OS co-twin and SS co-twin.
We would like to thank Anders Hammerich Riis for his suggestion of applying the cluster method in opposite analysis, and we are grateful to Tina Christensen for her help in the language revision. Due sexes legal restrictions, data is only available upon application and payment of an administration fee.
Also, due to legal restrictions, permission to combine several datasets must be obtained from the Danish Data Protection Agency Borgergade 28, 5, Copenhagen, Denmark. YM drafted the first version of the manuscript 2002 critically revised the manuscript. LA, KC, and JO conceptualized and designed the study and critically reviewed and revised the manuscript. CW and Opposite critically reviewed and revised the manuscript.
YS supervised, conceptualized, and designed the study; analyzed the data; and critically reviewed and revised the manuscript. LA and CW also contributed to the data analyses.
All authors approved the final manuscript as submitted and agreed to be accountable for the work. The other authors declare that they have no competing interests. Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. Skip to main content Skip to sections. Advertisement Hide. Download PDF. Biology of Sex Differences DecemberOpposite as.
Risk of epilepsy in opposite-sex and same-sex twins: a twin cohort study. Open Access. First Online: 04 June Background There is a complex interaction between female and male sex hormones and the risk of epilepsy. Results We identified OS female twins, SS female twins, OS male twins, and SS male twins diagnosed with epilepsy corresponding to an incidence rate of 9. Conclusions In this population-based study of Danish twins, we did not find difference in the risk of epilepsy between twins with an OS co-twin and twins with a SS co-twin.
Background Epilepsy is the most frequent chronic neurologic condition in childhood [ 123 ]. Study population and follow-up We identified 63, twins born alive in Denmark between and from the Danish Twin Registry [ 38 ], very has complete registration of all twin live births since This left us with a study population of 62, twins Fig. In this study population, 1. These children were followed from day 29 after birth until diagnosis of epilepsy, death, emigration, or end of follow-up 31 Decemberwhichever came first.
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Secretary is a American erotic romantic drama comedy film directed by Steven Shainberg and written by Erin 2002 Wilsonsexes on the short story Secretary by Mary Gaitskill. Lee Holloway Maggie Gyllenhaalthe socially awkward and emotionally sensitive youngest daughter of a dysfunctional familyopposite to normal life after having been hospitalized following an incident of dangerous self-harm.
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Secretary, Inc. This oonline needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. April American Film Institute. Retrieved July 30, The Numbers. Box Office Mojo. Secretary "Behind the Secretary". Spank You Very Much. Entertainment Design, 36 10 Retrieved April 1, online, oppodite Research Oppoxite Core. Document ID: Retrieved 25 Sexees Chicago Sun-Times. Films directed by Steven Shainberg.
Categories : films English-language films s romance films American comedy-drama films American films American romance films American sex comedy films Erotic drama films Opposite in films Films about dysfunctional families Films directed by Steven Shainberg Online based on short fiction Lions Gate Entertainment films Very scored fery Angelo Badalamenti Self-harm in films s sex comedy films.
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Very Opposite Sexes
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