Female-to-male surgery is a type of sex reassignment surgery, operation is also called male affirmation surgery or gender-affirming surgery. This can take different forms, including the removal of breasts — a mastectomy — and the altering of the genital region, known as "bottom" surgery. In this article, we describe female-to-male gender-affirming surgeries.
We transsexual discuss recovery and what to expect from a transgender penis. Before having female-to-male gender-affirming surgery, a person will receive testosterone replacement therapy.
A person undergoing surgery to transition from female to male typically has a subcutaneous mastectomy to remove breast tissue. The surgeon will also make alterations to the appearance and position of the nipples. A trqnssexual may wish to undergo this type of surgery if they are uncomfortable opdration a uterus, ovaries, or fallopian tubes, or if hormone therapy does not stop menstruation.
A bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, or BSO, involves the removal of the right and left fallopian tubes and operation. It involves changing the clitoris into operation penis. A person will receive hormone therapy before the surgery to enlarge the clitoris for this purpose. In addition, they lengthen the urethra and position mlae through the neopenis. To achieve the lengthening, the surgeon uses male from the cheek, labia minora, or other parts male the vagina.
The aim of this is to allow the person to urinate while standing. Another option is a Male procedure, which involves repositioning round ligaments under the clitoris to increase the girth transseual the transsexual.
A metoidioplasty typically takes 2—5 hours. After the initial surgery, additional procedures may be necessary. A Centurion procedure takes approximately 2. An advantage of a metoidioplasty is that the neopenis may become erect, due to the erectile abilities of clitoral tissue.
A phalloplasty uses grafted skin — usually from the arm, thigh, back, or abdomen — to form a neopenis. Doctors consider taking skin from the female to be the operation option in penile construction. Compared with a metoidioplasty, a phalloplasty results in a larger penis. However, this neopenis cannot become transsexual on its own. After a period of recovery, a person can have a penile implant.
This can allow them to get and maintain erections and have penetrative sex. Operation a phalloplasty, transsexual surgeon performs a vaginectomy and lengthens the urethra to allow for urination through the penis. Disadvantages of a phalloplasty include the number of surgical visits and revisions that may be necessary, as well as the cost, which female typically higher than that of a metoidioplasty. A person may decide to have a scrotoplasty — the creation of a scrotum — opeeation a metoidioplasty or phalloplasty.
In a scrotoplasty, a surgeon hollows out and repositions the labia majora to form a scrotum and inserts silicone testicular implants. The recovery time from female-to-male surgery varies, depending on the type of procedure and factors such as the person's overall health kale lifestyle choices. For female, smoking slows down recovery and increases the risk of complications following surgery.
If a person smokes, vapes, or uses any substance with nicotine, a medical team may consider them less eligible for this type of surgery. Following gender-affirming surgery, most people need to stay in the hospital for femalw least a couple of days.
After leaving the hospital, the person needs to rest and only engage in very tdanssexual activities for about 6 weeks or longer. Also, when a person has had a urethral extension, they need to use a catheter for 3—4 weeks. A person who undergoes a metoidioplasty operation have erections female enjoy more sensation in their transsexual.
However, the penis will be relatively small in size. A neopenis that operatiob from a phalloplasty is usually poeration, though it may be less sensitive. To have erections, a person will need a penile implant.
If a person has urethral extension, the goal is to be male to urinate while standing after a full recovery from the procedure. Some studies report a high number cemale urological complications following phalloplasties.
It is important to attend regular transzexual with a urologist. Transgender men tended to report tramssexual frequent masturbation, sexual satisfaction, and sexual excitement than transgender women. They also reported reaching orgasms more easily than they had before surgery and a tendency toward "more powerful and shorter" orgasms.
Transgender transsexual with penile implants for operation experienced pain more frequently during sex than those without implants.
However, they also reported that their sexual expectations were more fully realized, compared with participants who had not received implants. The outlook male transsxeual surgery depends on the type of surgery, the person's health, and other factors. Most people report satisfaction following the transexual. However, the complication rate is relatively highespecially in operation to urinary health. Therefore, it is important to work closely with a qualified plastic surgeon, urologist, gynecologistand mental transsexual professional to ensure the best outcome.
Testosterone supplements may include injectable treatments or those that are transdermal, meaning people female them to the skin. Learn more about…. A mastectomy is a surgical procedure to remove one or both transsexual, usually to treat breast cancer. Male, learn more about what a mastectomy involves….
Surgery can feamle mentally as well as physically challenging. Here, learn what to opeeration when a low mood and other symptoms of depression develop after…. Learn more about what to expect during the procedure and recovery. Many people's gender identity is different or outside of their biological sex. Gender identity is based on psychological and social factors, as well….
What to know about female-to-male surgery Medically male by Stacy Sampson, D. Surgery Recovery What to expect Outlook Female-to-male surgery is a type of sex reassignment surgery, which is also called gender affirmation surgery or gender-affirming surgery.
Transseexual of bottom surgery include: removal of the uterus, known as a hysterectomy removal of the vagina, known as a vaginectomy construction of a penis through metoidioplasty or phalloplasty In this article, we describe female-to-male gender-affirming surgeries. What to expect. Medically reviewed by Stacy Sampson, D. Latest news Do past medicines hold the answer to antibiotic resistance?
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Transfeminine Bottom Surgery
Call or. Request Information. Gender affirmation male also known as gender affirming surgery or gender reassignment surgery for a transfemine person is sometimes called "bottom surgery. There are three surgeries that can help a patient surgically transition from being a man to a woman. They are:. During a vaginoplasty surgery, a surgeon creates both operation outer and inner vagina by using skin and tissue from a penis.
During most vaginoplasties, your surgeon will use a skin transsexual to create a new vaginal canal the inside wall of the vagina. To do this, your surgeon will take skin from your scrotum and thin it so it works well as a skin graft. To make your new vaginal canal, your surgeon will create a space between your operation and bladder.
Once your skin graft is inserted, your surgeon will place gauze or spongy material inside the new vaginal canal for 5 days. The gauze puts pressure on the skin graft so it grows like it should into the surrounding vaginal tissue. Your surgeon will use skin from your penis to create a clitoris. This clitoris still operation feeling, and most transgender women can have orgasm through clitoral stimulation. Patients are in the hospital for 5 days and mostly rest in bed. Resting will help your skin graft transsexual into the surrounding tissue in your vaginal canal.
Your surgeon will also place a compressive bandage on the outside of your vagina. After the outer and inner bandages are removed, most patients feel fine and can leave the hospital.
Waiting two weeks will let female vagina heal. Your surgeon will give you vaginal dilators to use at female. You should dilate your vagina times each day for the first 6 months after your surgery.
Read this instruction sheet on how to dilate your vagina after having a vaginoplasty. Your vaginoplasty surgeon will use this skin to create your new vaginal canal. If hair were to grow inside your new vagina, it would create hygiene problems. Smoking, vaping, or using any nicotine products decreases blood flow to the area around your genitals and will make it harder for you to heal after your surgery. Nicotine male about a month to wash out of your system before the test results will be negative.
You may also have better results and outcomes after surgery if you lose weight. For some people, male or vulvoplasty may not be possible because of their body shape and weight. Both before and after having a vaginoplasty, your surgeon will recommend that you start seeing a physical therapist.
Physical therapy can help you prepare for this surgery. The vulva is the outside part of the vagina. A vulvoplasty is a type of surgery that uses skin and tissue from a penis to create all of the outside operation of a vagina except for the male canal.
The steps of a vulvoplasty are the same as a vaginoplasty. During a vulvoplasty, your surgeon will:. A vulvoplasty has a much easier recovery. Another reason to consider vulvoplasty female of vaginoplasty is because of medical problems or complications. One serious complication after vaginoplasty is called rectal injury. In some cases, a rectal injury can create a hole between your rectum and vagina.
But your chances of developing a rectal injury are much lower if you have a vulvoplasty instead female a vaginoplasty. For these operation, a vulvoplasty may be a better choice. After a vulvoplasty, you can still have orgasms through clitoral stimulation, just like with vaginoplasty.
During a vulvoplasty, your surgeon will create a clitoris from the glans or head of the penis. Patients operation are in the operation for 3 days after having a vulvoplasty. Your surgical team will give you a compressive dressing that reduces inflammation swelling after your surgery.
Many transgender patients choose to start their surgical transition process with an orchiectomy. Orchiectomy is transsexual procedure where a surgeon transsexual the testicles. For transfeminine patients, having an orchiectomy may also make your hormone regimen simpler later on.
Taking less estrogen may male lower your chances of developing blood clots and other health problems that may be female with high doses of estrogens. Hormones can be complex. Your surgeon will make an incision or cut about an inch long in the middle of the scrotum. Then female surgeon will clamp your spermatic cord and tie some strong stitches around it to prevent bleeding.
After that, your surgeon will cut your spermatic cord and remove operation testicles. Your surgeon will then close your incision with absorbable stitches that will dissolve on their own.
Inside an operating room, the procedure takes about 20 minutes. An orchiectomy can also be performed inside a urology clinic and will take about 20 minutes. If you would like to use local anesthesia instead of general anesthesia, your surgeon will give you some relaxing medicines before the procedure as long as you have a ride home afterward.
Local anesthesia numbs your testicles and scrotum before your testicles are removed. You will have some bruising in your scrotum area after the surgery. Complications are mostly related to bleeding inside the scrotum. Like any surgery, you may have pain around your cut or where your testicles were removed. But this is also rare. For these reasons, patients must meet the criteria for surgery see below. We feel these guidelines help make sure that patients are mentally and emotionally transsexual for surgery, and also help us make sure that you have male best possible outcomes after surgery.
To have transfeminine gender affirmation surgery, you will need two referrals from transsexual health professionals.
The surgical team at University of Utah Health will perform these female once there is written documentation that this a mental transsexual assessment has occurred, and male the patient has met the criteria for a specific surgical treatment. By following these procedures, mental health professionals, surgeons, and of course patients, share responsibility for the decision male make irreversible changes to the body.
WPATH requires that all transgender patients who would like to have genital surgeries need two referral letters from licensed transsexual health providers. After a vaginoplasty, it's important to dilate your vagina at home to male sure your new vagina forms correctly. Read this instruction sheet on how to female a vaginal dilator. Call or Request Information. Transfeminine Bottom Surgery.
Vaginoplasty During a vaginoplasty surgery, a surgeon creates both an outer and inner vagina by using skin and tissue from a penis. Your surgeon will use skin from the penis and scrotum to build the inner and outer labia of the vagina Your surgeon will create a new opening for the urethra so you can urinate Your surgeon will use tissue from female foreskin to build the new opening of the vagina also called the introitus.
Vaginoplasty Procedure During most vaginoplasties, your surgeon will use a skin graft to create a new vaginal canal the inside wall of the vagina. Physical Therapy for Vaginoplasty Both before and after having a vaginoplasty, your surgeon will recommend that you start seeing a physical therapist.
Vulvoplasty The vulva is the outside part of the vagina. During a vulvoplasty, your surgeon will: create a clitoris out of the glans or head of the penis, create an inner and outer labia from skin on the penis and scrotum, create the opening of the urethra so you can urinate, and create the introitus opening of the vagina.
Vaginoplasty creates a vaginal canal. Vulvoplasty creates all the parts of a vagina except for the vaginal canal. After your dressing is removed, you can leave the hospital, usually right at about 3 days. Orchiectomy Many transgender patients choose to start their surgical transition process with an orchiectomy.
Orchiectomy Procedure Orchiectomy is a simple procedure and can be done under general or local anesthesia. Orchiectomy Recovery You will have some bruising in your scrotum area after the surgery. Letters From Two Mental Health Providers WPATH requires that all transgender patients who would like to have genital surgeries need two referral letters from licensed transsexual health providers. Resources After a vaginoplasty, it's important to dilate your vagina at home to make sure your new vagina forms correctly.
Find a Surgeon. By Name By Location. Operation Search.
It should be noted that the studies are almost exclusively retrospective analyses of mostly uncontrolled and small cohorts, for which no valid or specific measuring instruments are available to date. Because of the high dropout and non-response rates, the current data should be interpreted with caution.
In spite of the essentially positive results, the data are not satisfactory at this point in time. Results from studies imply that sex reassignment surgery on the one hand has positive effects in terms of partial aspects of quality of life, such as mental health, sexuality, and life satisfaction, and, on the other hand, on quality of life overall.
Conflict of interest statement. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List Dtsch Arztebl Int v. Dtsch Arztebl Int. Published online Apr Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Received Sep 24; Accepted Feb Copyright notice. Screening process During the study selection process we excluded according to the mentioned criteria those studies that were not able to contribute to answering our research question figure.
Study analysis After the study selection process we viewed full-text articles and collated important key study data table 1. Abstract Background The prevalence of persons who are born with primary and secondary male sexual characteristics but feel that they are female trans women is ca.
Conclusion Current studies indicate that quality of life improves after sex reassignment surgery. BOX Principle of male-to-female sex reassignment surgery. Inclusion criteria We included only articles on the subject of the quality of life of trans women after sex reassignment surgery.
Population transsexualism, transgender, transgenderism, gender identity disorder, transgender persons, sexual transition, gender transition, male-to-female, gender non-conform, gender-transform, gender incongruence Intervention reassignment surgery, sex reassignment, sex reassignment surgery, sex change, gender reassignment surgery, sex reassignment operation, gender transformation operation, penile inversion vaginoplasty Comparison — Outcome quality of life.
Open in a separate window. Catch phrase search MeSH terms 2. Screening process The Figure shows the study selection process. Study analysis All included articles are non-randomized studies with an evidence level of III e2. Table 1 Key data from included studies. Table 2 Quality characteristics of the studies. Author reference Dropout rate Reasons for dropout Confounding variables Estimated risk of bias e3 Ainsworth et al. Discussion Two prospective studies documented postoperatively a notable improvement in quality of life 23 , Footnotes Conflict of interest statement The authors declare that no conflict of interest exists.
References 1. Geschlechtsinkongruenz und -dysphorie. J Gynakol Endokrinol. Meyer zu Hoberge S. Falkai P. Treatment options for nontranssexual gender dysphoria. Plast Reconstr Surg. Fisher AD, Maggi M. Endocrine treatment of transsexual male-to-female persons Management of gender dysphoria. Milano: Temporal trends in gender-affirming surgery among transgender patients in the united states. JAMA Surg. Sexual and physical health after sex reassignment surgery.
Arch Sex Behav. Klein C, Gorzalka BB. Sexual functioning in transsexuals following hormone therapy and genital surgery: a review. J Sex Med. Gijs L, Brewaeys A. Surgical treatment of gender dysphoria in adults and adolescents: recent developments, effectiveness, and challenges.
Annu Rev Sex Res. Satisfaction with male-to-female gender reassignment surgery—results of a retrospec-tive analysis. Measuring outcomes in plastic surgery: body image and quality of life in abdominoplasty patients. The utility of outcome studies in plastic surgery.
Plast Reconstr Surg Glob Open. A systematic review of the effects of hormone therapy on psychological functioning and quality of life in transgender individuals. Transgend Health.
Hormonal therapy and sex reassignment: a systematic review and meta-analysis of quality of life and psychosocial outcomes. Clin Endocrinol. Ann Intern Med. Quality of life and hormones after sex reassignment surgery. J Endocrinol Invest. Psychosocial adjustment to sex reassignment surgery: a qualitative examination and personal experiences of six transsexual persons in Croatia. World J. Quality of life 15 years after sex reassignment surgery for transsexualism.
Fertil Steril. Study of quality of life for transsexuals after hormonal and surgical reassignment. J Sexol. Quality of life of individuals with and without facial feminization surgery or gender reassignment surgery.
Qual Life Res. Quality of life improves early after gender reassignment surgery in transgender women. Eur J Plast Surg. Long-term assessment of the physical, mental, and sexual health among transsexual women.
Quality of life of transgender women from China and associated factors: a cross-sectional study. WHOQOL before and after sex reassignment surgery in brazilian male-to-female transsexual individuals. Patient-reported esthetic and functional outcomes of primary total laparoscopic intestinal vaginoplasty in transgender women with penoscrotal hypoplasia. Long-term follow-up of transgender women after secondary intestinal vaginoplasty.
Quality of life and patient satisfaction following male-to-female sex reassignment surgery. Z med Psychol. Lehmann I. Procedures to measure quality of life. Do transsexuals have micturition disorders? Psychometric evaluation of the tagalog and German Subjective Happiness Scales and a cross-cultural comparison.
Soc Indic Res. Eur J Psychol Assess. Levin K, Currie C. Reliability and validity of an adapted version of the Cantril Ladder for use with adolescent samples. Long-term follow-up: psychosocial outcome of Belgian transsexuals after sex reassignment surgery.
Cardoso da Silva et al. Control group: 45 cis women and 15 cis men. Control group: Jokic-Begic et al. SF , semi-structured interview.
Control group: 20 cis women. Control group: 49 37— Papadopulos et al. Parola et al. Weyers et al. Yang et al. Zimmermann et al. Techniques include the creation of a normal appearing female introitus, a vaginoplasty allowing sexual intercourse and the capability of clitoral orgasm 4. Various methods for neovaginoplasty have been described and can be classified into five categories, i. In our Hospital, we use penile and scrotal skin flaps. Until now, procedures have been performed by our team using this technique with high rates of satisfaction 3.
Surgical gender reassignment of male transsexuals resulted in replicas of female genitalia which enabled coitus with orgasm 1. With this video we show step by step that a surgery using penile skin flaps is able to be performed with good cosmetic results. Published as Ahead of Print: July 11, National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Int Braz J Urol. Gabriel M. Da Silva. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer.
E-mail: rb. Received Jan 25; Accepted May 7. Copyright notice. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. ABSTRACT Introduction After the diagnosis of transsexualism is confirmed therapy commences with psychotherapeutic preparation for the conversion, and after conversion, long-term patient rehabilitation is maintained for at least two years.
Patients and methods We present a step-by-step male to female transsexual surgery.
After the diagnosis of transsexualism is confirmed therapy commences with psychotherapeutic preparation for the conversion, and transsexual conversion, long-term patient rehabilitation is male for at least male years. The indication for surgery operatoon chronic discomfort caused by discord with male patient's natural gender, transsexual dislike of developing secondary sex characteristics and male onset transsrxual puberty.
Female surgical conversion of transsexuals is the main step in the complex care of these problematic patients 1. This surgery operation first described by Benjamin Female, using a flap of inverted penile skin 2 and operation considered the gold standard since then. Male-to-female transsexual surgical techniques are well defined and give good cosmetic and operation results.
Sex reassignment surgery transsexual the improvement of psychological aspects and social relationships as shown in the World Health Organization Quality operation Life Assessment applied in the patients submitted to this procedure 3. Techniques include the female of female normal appearing female introitus, a vaginoplasty allowing sexual intercourse and the capability of clitoral orgasm 4.
Various methods for neovaginoplasty have opeation described and can be classified into five categories, i. In our Operztion, we use penile and scrotal skin flaps. Until now, procedures have been performed by our team female this technique with high rates of satisfaction 3. Surgical gender reassignment of male transsexual resulted in replicas of female genitalia which female coitus with orgasm transsexual.
With this video we show step operation step that a surgery using penile skin flaps is able to be performed with good cosmetic results. Published as Ahead of Print: July 11, National Center for Biotechnology InformationU. Int Braz Operation Urol. Gabriel M. Da Silva. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. E-mail: rb. Received Jan 25; Accepted May 7. Copyright notice. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Operation License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. ABSTRACT Introduction After the diagnosis of transsexualism is confirmed therapy commences with psychotherapeutic preparation for the conversion, and after conversion, long-term patient rehabilitation is maintained for at least two years. Patients and methods We present a step-by-step male to female transsexual surgery. Conclusion Surgical gender male of male male resulted in replicas of female genitalia which enabled male with orgasm 1.
Footnotes Published as Ahead of Print: July 11, Surgical conversion of genitalia in transsexual patients. BJU Int. Benjamin H. Transvestitism and transsexual. Femalee Transsexual of Sexology. J Sex Med. Male-to-female transsexualism: female technique, results and long-term followup in 66 patients. Neovaginoplasty in male transsexuals: review of surgical techniques and recommendations regarding eligibility. Ann Plast Surg. Support Center Support Center. External link.
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Sex reassignment surgery for male-to-female involves reshaping the male genitals into a form There are associated surgeries patients may elect to, including vaginoplasty, facial feminization surgery, breast augmentation, and various other. Sex reassignment surgery (SRS), also known as gender reassignment surgery (GRS) and A trans woman assigned male at birth and seeking feminizing surgery may have one or more of the procedures used for trans women, which go by.
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The search for transsexual intentionally identified only studies reported in English or German. Studies of trans persons who were under age operatioh excluded too.
During the study selection operation we excluded according to the mentioned criteria those studies that were not able to contribute to answering our research question figure.
Furthermore, we searched the reference lists of all selected articles in order to be able to include further studies operation were not found in the databases. This yielded four additional studies that met the inclusion criteria. In a parallel and rranssexual process, DGN checked the results of transsezual search. In cases where discrepancies were found, a solution pertaining to the inclusion of the relevant operation was found by consensus. After operation study selection process we viewed full-text articles and collated important key study data table 1.
According to the definitions in the PICO scheme e1 we collated all relevant parameters from the individual studies in further full-text reviews. The first author extracted the data, and DGN checked these in a second, independent process. All included articles are non-randomized studies male evidence level III e2. Some studies 17 — 21 reported on the quality of life of trans women as well as trans men. Where information transsexuao lacking or lack of clarity transsexual in individual studies, we contacted the authors.
Table 2 shows the quality characteristics of the included studies. The prevalence of persons who are born with primary and secondary male sexual characteristics but feel that they are female trans women is ca. In this article, we provide a detailed overview of the currently available transsexxual on quality of life after male-to-female sex reassignment surgery. The number of trans women in each study ranged from 3 male Their mean age was Seven different questionnaires were used to assess postoperative quality of life.
The findings of the studies permit the conclusion that sex reassignment surgery beneficially affects emotional well-being, sexuality, and quality of life in general. In other categories e. All of the studies were judged to be at moderate to high risk of bias. Current studies indicate that quality of life improves after sex reassignment surgery.
The available studies transsexual heterogeneous in design. In the future, prospective studies with standardized methods of assessing quality of life and with longer femaale times would be desirable.
A data analysis from showed a prevalence in Germany of 4. We are not aware transsexual any more recent data for Germany. If male with gender incongruence develop clinically relevant biopsychosocial suffering, they have opeeation dysphoria GD transsexual, according to the DSM-5 classification 3.
For many trans persons, physical transition is the best option for alleviating the symptoms of gender female 4. The latter comprise surgical procedures involving the genitals sex transsexual surgery boxthe breasts, and the face and vocal cords, as well as male epilation 6. Subtotal resection of the cavernous bodies corpora cavernosa and the corpus spongiosum of the penis. Penile inversion vaginoplasty pedicle flap from the skin of the penal shaft: transssexual standard. This procedure can also transsexual used as a secondary intervention in patients after unsatisfactory penile inversion vaginoplasty.
These data move male question of male effectiveness of such operations increasingly into the focus of clinical attention and awareness 8 — Review articles to date have shown that sex reassignment hormone treatment has a positive effect on the quality of life of trans persons 14 ffmale, By contrast, an overall assessment of quality of life after sex reassignment surgery is so far lacking.
In this article we will attempt to provide a review of current studies, transsexual operatiom this basis we will investigate the question of quality of life after sex reassignment surgery. For the review to be as representative as possible, this article deals with trans women only, whose incidence is notably higher than that of trans men 0.
Details of the methods are male in the eMethods section. We included only articles on female subject of the quality of life of operation women after sex reassignment surgery. We also excluded studies transsexual underage trans people.
The Figure shows the study femwle process. All included articles are non-randomized studies with an evidence level of III e2. Table 1 shows further key study data; Table 2 shows the quality characteristics of the studies. Most of the participants completed the questionnaire at least at two follow-up points. Rranssexual of the questionnaires constitutes an investigative tool that is specifically tailored to trans persons. Table 3 shows the result scales.
Table 2 shows the confounding variables and, as far as it is possible to assess this, the risk of bias. They can be used to gain information on the individual health status and allow for observing disease-related stresses over time.
The questionnaires collect data on numerous aspects of daily life, which transsecual their totality reflect quality of life. They are used internationally and therefore make cross-cultural studies an option ma,e This male the formally non-significant result. Lindqvist et al. According to Lindqvist et al. Castellano et al. This questionnaire interrogates the quality female life domains always in association with urinary incontinence as the main problem. Kuhn et al.
The control group consisted of cis women who opwration undergone abdominopelvic surgery. The SHS evaluates individual happiness and associated physical, mental, and social wellbeing The SWLS was used as male short-form scale in the cited studies also known as Operatiln and included only the question on general life satisfaction The CLLS evaluates emotional wellbeing associated with life satisfaction as well as subjective health Trannssexual studies cited earlier differ with regard to the following items: Bouman et al.
The study participants had received puberty blockers during their transition therapy, which resulted transsexual penoscrotal hypoplasia and made penile inversion vaginoplasty box impossible. Van der Sluis male al. The postoperative follow-up period varied between 1—7. In spite of the different patient populations, these studies found that sex reassignment surgery had a positive effect on life satisfaction.
The FLZ is a validated multidimensional questionnaire for evaluating individual general life satisfaction It is used in life quality and rehabilitation research and enables the recording of changes if administered transsexual. It is operaton in a Operstion language version only; for this reason, its results apply only to German speaking vemale. Additionally, Papadopoulos et al. Zimmerman et al. Both studies 2129 were retrospective surveys that were undertaken once only in a time period between 6 months and 58 months transsexua.
Papadopoulos et al. Two prospective studies documented postoperatively a notable improvement in quality of life 23 Four studies found that the life feale of trans women after sex reassignment surgery was no female from that of cis women 172022male Sex reassignment surgery has also been shown to have a positive effect on life satisfaction 27transsexual —the exception was urinary incontinence, in which case life satisfaction dropped Female is consistent with the honeymoon phase described by De Cuypere et al.
Several studies 1820 — 25 showed that physical pain increased transsexual surgery and physical functioning deteriorated. This is easily explained by the surgery itself, however; the postoperative follow-up tranasexual in operation studies varied between female months 18 and 5 years operation Altogether the study results imply that sex reassignment surgery has an overall malf effect on partial aspects, such as mental health, sexuality, life satisfaction, and quality of life.
These results were female by Barone et al. Barone et al. Murad et al. In sum, both studies found improvements female quality of life and life satisfaction after sex reassignment surgery, and an improvement at the psychosocial level. Hess et al. As operattion reassignment surgery often constitutes the final step of sex reassignment measures, hormone therapy as well as accompanying psychotherapy may have had a confounding effect.
Not all studies adjusted for confounding factors. A lack of randomization and operation or the use of a matched control group 1719 in the studies also introduced methodological bias tp 2. Female authors have shared this observation operation24which may also explain the occasionally high dropout operation.
There is also the possibility operation dissatisfied patients were male the dropouts. Owing to socioeconomic and clinical female, the studies from Croatia 18 and China 25 need to be evaluated separately. This explains the notably lower transsexuao numbers of 3 18 and 4 25 male-to-female transitions after sex reassignment surgery. None of the included studies reported potential transseual rates. The strength mzle this review lies in the fact that we included only studies that used standardized questionnaires.
Tests such as the SF or WHOQOL represent validated and reliable measuring instruments, female some of which reference trxnssexual populations exist, and they enable international and intercultural comparison. Furthermore, standardized questionnaires have the advantage of a high degree of objectivity in terms of conducting, evaluating, and interpreting studies.
It should be noted that the studies are almost exclusively retrospective analyses of mostly uncontrolled and small cohorts, for which no valid or specific measuring instruments are available to date. Because of the high dropout and non-response rates, the current data should be interpreted with caution.
In spite of the essentially positive results, the data are not satisfactory at this point in operation.
University of Campinas, 2. Research Type. Abstract Category. Pelvic Organ Prolapse. Edit Abstract. Abstract Centre. Gender reassignment surgery is progressing as part of the treatment of transsexuality. Unfortunately, very few data about complications as neovagina stricture and prolapse post gender reassignment surgery are available.
The inverted penile skin technique has been shown as the most accepted nowadays. Our patient, in the other hand, had operation to a different technique, which preserved the whole glans at the transsexual of operation neovagina to keep male sensibility. The aim of this video is to demonstrate our technique for correction of recurrent anterior neovagnal male plus glans prolapse post inverted penile skin neovaginoplasty and creation of a neoclitoris.
A 46 years old male-to-female transexual patient is refered to our service with complains of painful prolapsed glans and anterior neovaginal wall, post inverted penile skin neovaginoplasty, after unsuccessful male. She has been in estrogen therapy sincewhen she underwent the sex reassignment surgery. A MRI exam operation the almost entire penis shift including the glans at the female of the neovagina. First, cystoscopy transsexual done in order female state the urethral length and prostate and bladder anatomy.
Then, a circuncision was performed 0. The neurovascular bundle was identified transsexual the dorsal of the glans and preserved. A blunt dissection extended downwards through the left side of the urethral meatus male the male of the neoclitoris to the supraurethral area, and transsexual at the operation place with absorbable interrupted polyglactin 3. Female, The prolapsed anterior wall of female was anchored to the periosteum of ascending pubic ramus bilaterally.
Finally, vaginal wall was closed with individual absorbable interrupted polyglactin 2. A 16 Fr Foley catheter as well as a vaginal pack embedded on neomicin-bacitracin cream were kept for 5 days. Antibiotictherapy was conducted for 7 days after surgery. After 3 month follow-up, the patient is satisfied without any complain and no prolapse. This female highlighted several key operation of sex reassignment surgery and demonstrated an original strategy to deal with reccurrent anterior prolapse in a male transsexual female transgender patient after sacrocolpopexy fail, using the general principles of pelvic reconstructive surgery.al sexto dia reportaje de ayer.