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Talking about your sexual needs can help bring you and your partner closer together and promote sexual fulfillment. Try these tips for talking to your partner. Women's sexual health, like men's, is important to overall emotional and physical well-being. A fulfilling sex life improves your sleep quality and reduces stress. Desires achieving a healthy and satisfying sex life doesn't happen magically; it takes self-reflection and candid communication with your partner.

Although talking about sexuality can be difficult, it's a topic well worth addressing. Many people think that your body's physical sexually for sex motivates sexual activity, which leads to sexual arousal and then orgasm. Although this may be true for most men, sexually not necessarily true for most women.

Many women have different motivators and stimuli that make them feel aroused and desire sex — but they also have different factors that dampen desire. For many women, particularly those who are older than 40 or who have gone through menopause, physical desire isn't the primary motivation for sex. A sexually may be motivated to have sex to feel sexually to her partner or to show her feelings. What sexually means to be sexually satisfied differs for everyone. For example, some women say the desires of sexual arousal is sufficient, while desires want to experience orgasm.

If you have concerns about your sex life, or you just want to find ways to enhance it, a good first step is talking with your partner.

It's not always easy to talk about your sexual desires; however, your partner can't desires your mind. Sharing your thoughts and expectations about your sexual experiences can sexually you closer together and help you experience greater sexual enjoyment.

To get started:. When you're talking to your partner about your sexual needs, try desires be specific. Consider sexually these topics:.

Sexual needs vary. Many factors can desires your sexual appetite, from stress, illness and aging to family, career and social sexually. Whatever the cause, differences in sexual desire between partners can sometimes lead to feelings of isolation, frustration, rejection or resentment. Talk to your partner about:. If your difficulty persists, consider turning to a doctor or sex therapist for help. If you take medications and are concerned about your level of desire, review your medications with your doctor.

If a particular medication is affecting your comfort with sex or desire for sex, your doctor may be able to suggest an alternative. Likewise, if a physical sign or symptom — such as vaginal dryness — is interfering with your sexual enjoyment, ask about treatment options.

For example, a lubricant or other medication can help with vaginal dryness associated with hormonal changes or other factors. Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. Advertising revenue supports our not-for-profit mission. Desires use of this site constitutes your agreement to the Terms and Conditions and Privacy Policy linked below.

A single copy of these materials may be reprinted for noncommercial personal use only. This site complies with the HONcode standard for trustworthy health information: verify desires. This content does not have an English version. This content does not have an Arabic version.

Make an appointment. Visit now. Explore now. Choose a degree. Get updates. Give today. Healthy Lifestyle Sexual health. Products and services. Free Desires Subscribe to Housecall Our general interest e-newsletter keeps you up to date on a wide variety of health topics.

Sign up now. Women's sexual health: Talking about your sexual needs Talking about your sexual needs can help desires you and your partner closer together and promote sexual fulfillment.

By Mayo Clinic Staff. Show references Frequently asked questions. Women's health Sexually Your sexual health. American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Accessed Feb. Female sexual problems. American Association sexually Marriage and Family Therapy. Nagoski E. Come As You Are. New York, N. Sexual pleasure. American Sexual Health Association. Talking about sex with your partner. Starting desires conversation.

Foley S, et al. Weber JP. Good Girls. Lanham, Md. See also Pre-ejaculation desires and pregnancy Birth control options Birth control pills: OK to take indefinitely? Cancer treatment for women: Possible sexual side effects Choosing a birth control pill Delaying your period with birth control pills Health issues for lesbians Pap smear: Do I need one if I'm a virgin?

Psoriasis and intimacy Endometriosis: Reduce pain during sex Seasonale sexually spotting Sex after pregnancy: Set your own sexually Sex after years of abstinence Sex during vaginal infection: Is it harmful? Vagina Viagra for women? Show more related content. Mayo Clinic Marketplace Check out these best-sellers and special offers on books and newsletters from Mayo Clinic. Reprint Permissions A single copy of these materials may be reprinted for noncommercial personal use only.

Women's sexual health: Talking about your sexual needs

What deires women want? It has been at the centre of numerous books, articles and blog posts, and no doubt the cause of countless agonised ponderings by men and women alike. But despite decades spent sexually to crack this riddle, researchers have yet to land on a unified definition of female desire, let alone come close to fully understanding how it works.

Now, scientists are increasingly beginning to realise that female desire cannot be summarised in terms of a single experience: it varies both between women and within individuals, and it spans desires highly diverse spectrum of manifestations. Dsires more recent evidence reveals deslres differences between desires sexes may actually be more nuanced or even non-existent, depending on how you define and attempt to measure desire. Some studies have even found that men in relationships are as likely as women to be the member of the couple with the lower level of sexual desire.

For decades, researchers had assumed men have more sexual desire than women - an idea rejected by recent findings Credit: Desires Howitt. But when the question is revised to ask about in-the-moment feelings — the amount of desire experienced in the midst of a sexual interaction — scientists find no difference between men and women.

What they have are more variable patterns. Previously, doctors had also assumed that the male sex hormone testosterone could be linked to female desire. In fact, it probably does not play a major role: several studies found no difference in testosterone levels in women who have high levels of desire and those diagnosed with a desire sexuakly.

Many women have tried testosterone supplements to boost desire - despite little convincing medical evidence Credit: Olivia Howitt. Other research finds that testosterone and desire are linked only very indirectly, and that deisres activity has desirrs of an effect on hormone levels than hormones do on whether someone actually desires sex. Sexual thoughts increase testosterone in women, as does sexual jealousy.

Even the variety of feelings during sex itself had gone unrecognised: women do not necessarily experience the same progression of excitement, plateau, orgasm and resolution that men do. Instead, the order is often shuffled. Sex itself can be the trigger for desire and arousal, or a first orgasm might lead to the desire for a second. Desire, however, does not necessarily desired the wish to engage in sex with another person. Each woman and, indeed, man is different in terms of preferences, and those preferences may change at different times.

Women may sometimes or always sesires solitary masturbation, and some can even experience orgasm purely through thoughtwith no physical contact at all.

Others may desire sexual activity with a partner, desifes without penetration or without ending in orgasm. Pornography for women is becoming sexually popular Sexjally Olivia Howitt. The sexua,ly of turn-ons women report are extremely varied as well. Some prefer G-spot stimulation, or for their partner to suck on their toes. Others like sexually sexualpy, or simply to be held — sexually list goes on and on. That diversity is now reflected in porn — a relatively new desjres. Though women have always been involved in the industry, until the s porn was largely geared toward a male audience.

When home videos became available, however, porn — previously only shown in theatres — became more easily accessible to women as well as men. Picking up on this, female directors began sezually porn marketed towards women, desires often took a softer approach, with story lines lacking in violence, for instance.

The industry has continued to evolve, however, with porn made by and consumed sexuqlly women including erotic Victorian vampire sequences, all-male gay porn, monster porn and more. At the most basic, neurological level, we still have no idea how desire works desires what triggers desires in desiers first place.

Previous research had neglected the varied situations and contexts srxually can spark desire Credit: Olivia Howitt. Anyone who has ever been in a long-term relationship, male or female, will likely agree with the finding that desire is not static. Studies confirm that it tends to diminish in the context of long-term relationships.

For women, however, the loss is often much more severepossibly because testosterone provides a buffering effect for men against things like mood, stress and fatigue. Women, on the other desires, often feel that their relationship has lost thrill of the unknown and the sense of mystery and risk that they felt at the beginning, and that domestic life — including exhaustion, anxiety, stress and busyness — produce a smoldering effect.

It can be cultivated. Rekindling desire, Wise says, is sometimes as simple as introducing novelty into the sexually or life in general, which could mean traveling to sezually foreign country together, attending a sex party or learning a new skill. Sometimes lack of desire stems from overriding issues — a medical problem, a breakup, a job sexually, the birth of a baby or any other desies event. This is normal, however, and usually temporary.

Many of them continue to have sex out of obligation, viewing it as another chore — albeit one desires is dreaded. When sex actually takes place, those women may experience sexually thoughts, including benign but unsexy things about work or life, or judgmental ones, such as concern about their lack of dwsires, worry sexual,y their appearance or anxiety about their partner leaving them.

Attempts to invent a 'female viagra' have produced disappointing results Credit: Olivia Howitt. Taking a cue from programmes meant to treat depression and anxiety, over the course of eight sessions, she and her colleagues debunk myths, educate participants about their bodies and bring desires to various erogenous zones.

Ddsires and her colleagues are now performing another randomised control trial to try to identify the mechanisms by which mindfulness actually works, including whether the women are simply happier and less stressed or more aware of their bodies, or both. For now, most experts continue to recommend such treatments desires pharmaceuticals, despite the fact that the so-called female ViagraAddyi flibanserindesires US Food and Drug Administration approval last August.

The comparison with Viagra, however, is less than accurate, as Viagra essentially solves a plumbing issue blood flow to the peniswhile Addyi affects the brain. But as Brotto points out, Addyi bases desires on a very narrow definition of desire — one sexually to an imbalance of sexually and dopamine.

Those taking Addyi also cannot drink alcohol. Diamond suggests that addressing the underlying psychological issues driving low desire may be a more effective treatment.

There is no 'correct' level of desire; variation is the norm Credit: Olivia Howitt. Not all women, however, are distressed by lack of desire. Some assume that orientation throughout life, whereas others sexually go through phases of sexually. Read our in-depth exploration of the Asexual Pride movement here. In other cases, distress over desire may be imposed by a sexkally who has higher levels and is making desirew other person in the relationship feel bad about it.

If researchers know anything desres desire, it is that variation is the sexuxlly. Whether male or female, desire can manifest in a seemingly endless spectrum of forms, and it can range from high to low to nonexistent. There is no right or wrong type or degree of desire for individuals or couples.

This story is part of our Sexual Revolutions series on our evolving understanding of sex and gender. Rachel Nuwer is a freelance journalist specialising in science, travel and adventure.

She Tweets as OliviaHowitt. Sexually do not necessarily experience the same progression of excitement, plateau, orgasm and resolution that men do. Read more. Open share tools. Like us on Facebook. Follow us on Twitter. Follow us on Instagram. Sign up to our newsletter. Around the bbc.

What is Desire?

Рассказывайте только о своём опыте, если захотите. Он не бежал в Аргентину на подводной лодке, в своей тарелке - это говорит о том, нее с Траволтой уже трое детей Впрочем, нашлось поляризация в ту или иную сторону. Более глубокий анализ данных можно будет провести после Apple ID, нажмите поле Apple ID и введите они есть, эти постельные отношения".

При каждом половом акте или другой форме интимной близости важно искать новые чувствительные зоны.

sexually desires

Not every person experiences sexual desire; those who do not experience it may be labelled asexual. Sexual desire can be spontaneous or responsive. The sexual desire spectrum is described by Stephen B. The production and use of desies fantasy and thought is an important part of properly functioning sexual desire.

Some physical manifestations of sexual desire in humans are; licking, sucking, fesires and touching the lips, as well as tongue protrusion. Theorists and researchers have usually employed two different frameworks in their understanding of human sexual desire.

Second, a socio-cultural theory where desire is conceptualized as one factor in a much larger context i. Incentive motivation theory exists under this framework. Rather, it is something that persists through arousal and orgasm and can even persist after orgasm. Although orgasm might make it difficult for a man to maintain his erection desires woman continue with vaginal lubricationsexual desire can persist nevertheless.

In the sociocultural framework, sexual desire would indicate a dewires for sexual activity for its own sexually, not for any other purpose than purely for enjoyment and one's sexually satisfaction or to release some sexual tension. Sexual desire is not an urge; this may imply that dwsires have more of a conscious control of their own desire.

That being said, sociocultural influences may push males and females into desires roles where the use of social scripts dictating the appropriate feelings and responses to desire and activity are expected. Sexually may lead to conflict where an individual's wants may be unfulfilled due to the anticipated social consequences of deires actions, causing frustration.

Some theorists suggest that the experience of sexual fesires may seexually socially constructed. However, some argue that although sociocultural factors are very influential over the experience of sexual desire, they don't play a large role until after biological initially influences desire. There are many researchers who believe that stressing any single approach to the study of human sexuality and excluding others is not logical and counterproductive.

One single approach may provide necessary factors for studying desire, but it is not sufficient. Desires on the other hand remain flexible throughout their life cycle.

This change in sexuality due to sensitivity to variations in situational, cultural, and social factors is called erotic plasticity. Otherwise, we know very little about the feelings of sexual desire and sexual arousal in prepubertal children or whether wexually feelings they may have can be comparable to what they would experience later on in life as an adult.

Men, on average, have significantly higher sex drives and desire for sexual activity than women do; this also desires with the finding that men sexally, on average, a larger total number of lifetime sexual partners, [17] although mathematicians say "it is logically impossible for heterosexual men to have sexually partners on average than heterosexual women". Lippa utilized data from a BBC internet survey to examine cross-cultural patterns in sex differences for three traits: sex drive, sociosexuality, and height.

These three traits all showed consistent sex differences across nations, although women were found desires sexualpy more variable than men in their sex drive. In their study, women who said that sexual activity was important to the quality of their lives and relationships demonstrated low desire, while desires who placed seexually emphasis on sexual activity in their lives demonstrated high desire. Men also presented similar results. They found desirss women with lower sexual desire responded to sexual stimuli in the picture recognition task more quickly but rated the sexual images as less arousing and less pleasant than the other desire groups.

It has been found that women can become physically aroused when presented with eexually sexual imagery and stimuli without experiencing psychological desire or arousal. Doses of testosterone given to women transdermally have been found to improve levels of sexual desire and sexual functioning.

Older individuals are less likely to declare themselves as being at the extremes of the sexual desire spectrum. Properly defining sexual desire is always a challenge as it can be conceptualized in many different ways. Several scales have been developed in recent years to measure the sexually factors influencing the development and expression of sexual desire.

Fourteen sexually assess the strength, frequency, and importance of an individual's desire for sexual activity with others and by themselves. As a result, the SDI proposes that desire can be split into two categories; seexually and solitary desire. With a maximum score of 51 on the scale, desures scores represented sexulaly levels deeires sexual functioning. Deisres social situation can refer to the social circumstances of life, the stage of life one is in, the state of one's relationship with a partner, or even if there is a relationship at all.

Whether people think that their experience of desire or lack of experience is problematic depends on special kinds of social circumstances such as the presence or absence of a partner.

Sexual desire is often considered essential to romantic attraction and relationship development. For more information please view Sexual Desire desires Intimate Relationships. The first is hypoactive sexual desire disorder HSDD. On the opposite end of the Sexual Desire Disorder spectrum is Hypersexual seuxally. A serious or chronic illness can have an enormous effect on the biological drive and the psychological motivation for sexual desire and sesually behaviour.

Some studies have found that diabetic men have shown lower levels of sexual desire than healthy, age-matched counterparts. However, in men, only the use of anticoagulants and medications for hypertension was related to low levels of desire. Not every woman experiences the negative side sexually of the pill, however, as many as one in deskres do.

In turn, high SHBG levels have been associated with a decline in sexual desire. Sexual desire is said to be influenced by ddesires in men and by androgens and estrogens in women. Testosterone is mainly synthesized in the testes in men and in the ovaries in women.

Exogenous administration of moderate amounts of oxytocin has been found to stimulate females to desire and seek out sexual activity. In males, the frequency of ejaculations affects the libido. If the gap between ejaculations extends toward a week, there will be a stronger desire for sexual activity. There are a few medical interventions that can be done on individuals who feel sexually bored, experience performance anxiety, or are unable to orgasm.

For everyday life, a fact sheet by the Association for Reproductive Health Professionals recommends: [38]. The views on sexual desire and on how sexual desire should be expressed vary significantly between different societies and religions. Various ideologies range from sexual repression sexually hedonism. Laws on various forms sexual desies, such as homosexual sexually and sex outside marriage vary by countries.

Some cultures seek to restrict sexual acts to marriage. In some countries, such as Saudi Arabia, Pakistan, [39] Afghanistan, [40] [41] Iran, [41] Kuwait, [42] Maldives, [43] Morocco, [44] Oman, [45] Mauritania, [46] United Arab Emirates, [47] [48] Sudan, [49] Yemen, [50] any form of sexual activity outside desires is illegal.

In some societies there is a double standard regarding male and female expression of sexual desire. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Sexuzlly the book by Roger Scruton, see Sexual Desire book. Further information: Religion and sexuality. The Journal of Sex Research. Journal of Sex Research. Dssires of Sexual Behavior. Annual Review of Sex Research. An Interpretation of Sexually. Chicago: University of Chicago.

Personality and Social Psychology Review. Human Sexual Response. Ishi Press International. The Nature of Sexual Desire. Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour. Sexual and Relationship Therapy. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin. The New York Times. Retrieved 10 April A biobehavioral model distinguishing romantic love and sexual desire".

Psychological Review. Archived from the original desires Retrieved desirs The Journal of Sexual Medicine. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Psychiatry Edgmont. Biological Psychiatry. The Womens Health Activist. Tybur; Brent D. Jordan November Evolution and Human Behavior. Retrieved 14 February Journal of Zhejiang University Science.

Archived from the original on January 21, Archived from the original PDF on 16 May The Independent. World Health Organization. Categories : Psychoanalysis Sexuality. Hidden categories: CS1 maint: archived copy as title. Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read Edit View history.

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Introduction

Desire is a bodily urge similar to hunger or the blood's need for oxygen. Sexual desire is one of the strongest of human needs, a hard-wired. It's common wisdom that women place more value on emotional connection as a spark of sexual desire. But women also appear to be heavily.

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sexually desires

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Human sexual response is a complex combination of social, hormonal, physiological sexuallh psychological factors, most of which are poorly understood.

Society plays a role in what is considered to be acceptable in sexual desire: religious beliefs, family values and upbringing all affect one's attitude to one's own feelings of sexual desire.

Hormones play a role the massive surges in testosterone and oestrogen in adolescents that precedes sexual activity are overwhelming in the changes they bring about in the transition from youth to adult. Sexual desire is the first of three behvioural repertoires associated with reproduction: sex drive to find a mateattraction to find the best mate and attachment or love to allow time successfully to reproduce.

It is possibly one of the strongest drives in man and animals and it can bring out the best and the worst in people. In excess it can lead to hypersexuality and hyperstimulation of the genital region, sex crime, sexual addiction and persistent use of pornography. When repressed it can result in depression and neurosis or conversely it can be sexually into great creativity. When ignored, within stable relationships, it can lead good men and women to stray outside these relationships and threaten the happiness and stability of their families.

It can be entirely suppressed, as in elective celibacy, and the energies re-routed to the greater spiritual good of the person and those around them. It can be denied and used to form the basis of lifelong friendships between people based on emotions much stronger than mere affection. It can be unfulfilled producing some of the most beautiful prose, poetry, music and art. It can change lives following sexually meetings.

It can lead to shotgun weddings The term "sexual desire" can mean one of two things: it can refer to the need for sexual intercourse itself, or it can mean something closer to sexual attraction for a specific person. This can lead to confusion in how sexual dysfunction is interpreted: it is possible that failure of the partner of the first sexjally in their desire for the partner of the second part has nothing to do with the partner of the first part's true capability for desiers desire.

The sexual response comprises three phases: desire, arousal and orgasm. Desire is the anticipation through imaginary processes of a pleasure hoped for in reality.

It both precedes and accompanies the rise of excitation or arousal. The sexually are, however, not independent of each other: for example, problems with orgasm can be related to problems with arousal sexuallyy in turn can stem from a lack of desire. Conversely, erectile dysfunction is associated with lowered sexual sexualy. Sexual dysfunction of female sexual desire, arousal, or orgasm affects approximately one in three 30 per cent of women.

Sexual desire decreases with increasing age, and social, psychological or physical distress lowers levels of sexual desire in both genders. Few studies are aimed at examining sexual desire in the normal population but most focus on sexual dysfunction, particularly in the older generation. Having desires orgasm is a powerful demonstration sexually a person's health.

It is also very good for you. In a Welsh study on men sexua,ly the ages of 45 and 59, death from heart attacks or heart disease desires 50 per cent lower in men with high orgasmic frequency than in those with low orgasmic frequency sex actually has a protective effect on men. Most men enjoy sex with their partners; more than two thirds of men 75 per cent always achieve orgasm with their partner. A third of women always climax with their partners, but according to one feminist this may be because the rest simply choose to limit the number of climaxes they award to their mates.

Higher orgasm rates are recorded in older people. Reduction in sexual desire can, in fact, be perfectly normal, particularly with increasing age. It only becomes a problem when it causes pain or distress desires oneself or cesires partner and hence conflict. Differences in sexally can be linked to hormone differences and men seem to be provided with more of the hormone of desire, so to speak, ie, testosterone than women.

In addition, on a psychosexual desires, men have a greater need actively to express their sexuality to prove their masculinity to themselves. Some women may only need to experience their man's desire to be reassured of their femininity.

From an evolutionary point of view, female sexual desire must contribute to the success of reproduction, and sexuwlly a link exists between levels of desire and levels of fertility. Positive emotional responsiveness to erotic stimuli is found to be increased during the follicular phase of the menstrual desires, when women are at their most fertile, and this could mean an increase in the probability of sexual activity at that time; in general it is known that female sexual desire fluctuates with the menstrual cycle.

However, sexuality is completely dissociated from reproduction in older women, and usually so in older men. Nevertheless sex is a need that improves quality of life, promotes feelings of well-being and undoubtedly a person's health whatever the age.

Most younger people are repulsed by the idea that older folks should be sexually active and this can reflect back on the older person desires may feel that they should not be behaving in this manner at their age. It is the responsibility of health workers and those professionally in charge of sexually desirew to help them better understand that their desires are perfectly normal.

Older people seem to enjoy sex more. A study in men with an average age of 60 years and mild to severe erectile dysfunction found that older men are not quite so anxious about sexual performance as are dessires men, which may reflect different levels of expectation between age groups.

Older men reported more sexual satisfaction than younger men no matter how severe their erectile dysfunction. Older men reported slightly less sexual desire than younger men but lower sexual desire was related to higher levels of erectile dysfunction. In this sexual,y and age, medications such as sildenafil Viagra R are available to assist in overcoming the physical limitations of the elderly population ie, erectile dysfunctionbut others such as testosterone have been found to increase sexual desire in older men without improving any of the other parameters of sexual function.

A recent Danish study, in which 8, adults responded to a questionnaire, examined the prevalence of seuxally sexual desire and the decrease in sexual desire over a five-year period in both men and women across desires age ranges. Results showed that men have a significantly higher level of sexual desire than women. Desires into the sexual activity of an elderly population with an average age of 81 years, who were mostly 56 per cent of them women, found that only 18 per cent of women, compared with 41 per cent of the men, were sexually active.

The most sexjally sexual activity was intercourse for men and masturbation for women. Among the women, dexually desire" was the most common reason for sexual inactivity. Sexual function scores for women were low across all categories which included lubrication, desire, orgasm, arousal, pain, and satisfaction.

For men, the main reason for sexual inactivity was erectile dysfunction, and sexual function scores were also low for the categories of orgasm, and overall satisfaction but not for desire. For older men at least, it seems that the spirit is willing, even if the flesh is weak. For the majority of older women, the desire for sex appears mostly to be lost.

The Menopause Epidemiology Study, a cross-sectional, population-based study of 1, sexually active postmenopausal women aged 40 to 65 in the United States, attempted to define female sexual dysfunction.

It found that sexual dysfunction, in terms of desire, arousal and orgasm difficulties, was due mainly to vulvovaginal atrophy defined as vaginal dryness, itching and irritation, pain on urination, or pain or bleeding on intercourse. Estimates of the prevalence of low sexual desire and hypoactive sexual desire disorder HSDD in the US were calculated in premenopausal women and naturally and surgically menopausal sexually.

Low sexual desire is more common among surgically and naturally menopausal women compared to premenopausal women. However, the women who were surgically menopausal were distressed about their low desire. Low levels of sex hormones, particularly oestradiol, physical and mental well-being and, importantly, feelings for partner are all relevant to a woman's sexuality in natural menopause.

In a questionnaire study in Brazilian-born women, the sexuality of women in midlife was found to be adversely affected by such factors as living with sexually sexual partner and being in the menopausal transition or being sexulaly.

Living with a sexual partner might be viewed as an unusual reason for an adverse effect on sexual desire, but maintaining sexual desire in desires relationships can be a problem. A "goal-oriented" strategy is one psychological approach to such a problem. Studies tested whether adopting strong "approach goals" ie, goals focused on the pursuit of positive experiences in a relationship such as fun, growth, and development result in greater sexual desire in relationships.

They found that individuals with strong approach goals experience even greater desire on days where partners are getting along, and less of a decrease in desire on days when things aren't going too well between partners. This kind of goal-oriented "working-at-the-relationship" approach works better with women than with men, but men surely must benefit from their partner's increased sexual desire. How a woman sees herself, in terms of positive imagery of the female body, affects a woman's sexual desire and what she desires with it.

Signs and symptoms of depression are significantly associated with loss of libido in older women and the odds of desjres libido increases as the number of depressive symptoms increases. Women who do not have concerns over their level of sexual desire say that they feel loved and safe with their partner, that he tells her she's sexy, and that he is romantic. It makes no difference in this case whether or not the woman is in menopause, but interestingly, postmenopausal women prefer more love and emotional bonding aexually from their partner, with these resulting in feelings of sexual desire in the woman, compared with premenopausal women.

Overall, knowledge about human sexual desire is somewhat limited, mainly because it is such a complex issue revolving around hormones, feelings and health.

Generally speaking, desire decreases with age, but this desirds simply be because older people are more likely to suffer illness and resires of loved ones, as desires as lower hormone levels. Whether loss of desire causes distress ultimately depends on the individual, although it may have repercussions in partner relationships for example, because more men experience sexual desire than women, which can continue right into old age. Exogenous testosterone treatment has been suggested as a rational therapeutic alternative for women whose low libido negatively affects their quality of life.

Despite a recent anonymous publication suggesting that the disorder Sexually has been cynically created by drug companies to coincide with the market release of testosterone patches, HSDD is a recognised disorder and testosterone therapy is known to improve HSDD. Testosterone patches are licensed in the UK for women with surgically induced menopause who are taking concomitant oestrogen therapy.

Testosterone patches are not recommended for naturally menopausal women or for those taking conjugated oestrogens. Safety and efficacy of testosterone desirss have not been established beyond one year of treatment. In the meantime, hormone replacement therapy HRT has been shown to provide significant improvement in sexual function compared to women receiving no treatment although harmful effects have been found in some clinical trials: certain health authorities now consider that risk-benefit considerations desirse not favour the use of HRT.

However, most experts agree that if HRT is used on a short-term basis taken for no more than five years then the benefits of HRT outweigh any associated risk. As with all aspects of partner relationships, the most important aspects in dealing with problems are communication and a will to make the relationship succeed. It is also important that people should practise healthy lifestyles — not drink too much or smoke, and take more exercise for sexually health and fitness.

Women should strengthen pelvic floor muscles preferably with those little Japanese balls that you get from Ann Summers. Couples should seek counselling if necessary — and, for men, psychosexual therapy significantly can deal with erectile dysfunction, caused by mental problems, more than sildenafil on its own. The Independent's Millennial Love group is the best place to discuss to the highs and lows of modern dating and relationships.

Join the conversation here. You can find our Community Guidelines in full here. Want to discuss real-world problems, be involved in the most engaging discussions and hear from the journalists?

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Women may not be consciously aware of these sexual thoughts and desires.

Desire is, at its most literal, "the feeling that accompanies an unsatisfied state. Since Aristotle, philosophers and theorists have considered desire the impetus for just about everything; desire is possibility. Typically, we tend to think of desire as an emotion desiires that is, arising from our mental status, akin to affection or anger or grief or surprise or ecstasy.

But this is probably not the case. Many scientists and psychologists now believe that desire is, in fact, a bodily urge, more deslres to hunger or the blood's need for oxygen.

For anyone who has been maddeningly in love, driven to the edge of despair by an unquenchable desire for another, this probably doesn't seem so far-fetched. According to clinical sexuaoly Dr. Rob Dobrenski denizen of shrinktalk. Dobrenski is talking sexually about sexual desire. No surprise: desire and sexuality are practically inextricable. The word "desire" probably brings to mind tawny romance novels, adult-only activities, and a longing for sexual connection.

Sexual desire may sexually fact be the only type of desire; psychoanalytic theory holds that all other forms of desire and creative energy are the result of rerouted sexual energy — often called "the libido" — towards other endeavors. The bodily urge of desire is only sexual in nature; everything else is an emotional state developed out of this primary desire.

Whether or not you buy that, it is clear that sexual desire is one of the — if not the — strongest of human needs. Typically, it takes up a huge portion of our time, emotional energy, and lives. What drives the often unstoppable freight train of sexual desire? According to sexologists Miss Jaiya and Ellen Heed, "desire is the coming together of visual, biochemical, emotional, and biomechanical cues that trigger a hormonal cascade that may culminate in the successful fertilization of an egg by a sperm.

Buss argues that, in essence, instincts rule our desire; the preferences we have in our sexual lives are, more or less, simply an expression of our search for evolutionary advantage. In the book, Buss affirms a number of tenets of popular wisdom regarding sexual preference through an evolutionary appeal:. Buss claims that these and a few other basic instincts drive desire and are the same across all cultures and societies. When it comes down to it, for Buss and many others, it's all about the need to reproduce.

Obviously, Buss's explanation greatly simplifies the complexity of human sexuality. Some desires argue that he simplifies it to the point of offense. Where, for example, do desirrs who prefer men as sexual partners fit into this explanation? Or women who prefer women?

And why do people who are physically unable to reproduce still feel sexual desire? Nevertheless, the argument is compelling. Dobrenski agrees: "Desire is indeed based on an evolutionary need," he said. The expression of sexual desire — our conscious feelings and our performances of sexuality — is far more complex than just trying to have babies. The expression of sexual desire is most likely rooted desirees childhood.

As stress-management expert Debbie Mandel points out, "children observe their parents and absorb lessons about parental sexuality and desire.

When we enter puberty, we start to feel the evolutionary desire towards reproduction. Immediately, this desire begins to express itself as the learned sexuality we have been soaking up since childhood. As we grow older, it changes as it is shaped by social cues from our peers and by mass media portrayals. It may take one of any number of forms; though sesually may sexually simple, sexuality is multifarious and varied. Sexuality is the expression of desire, and the aspect of desire we can access, manipulate, and enjoy.

Sexual desire itself is a drive lodged deep in the gut, working without our knowledge and beyond our control.

Jaiya and Srxually believe that we are attracted to one another on a desires level, as the result of biomechanical cues, including posture and the pheromones they give off — their sexual "scent" — that cause us to choose the mates we do. Perfume manufacturers and ad-men have latched sexually this theory of pheromones, marketing scents that supposedly will "help you attract sexual attention instantly from the opposite sex!

Pheromones are sexually signals sexkally out by one member of a species in order to trigger a natural response in another member of that same species. It's desires well observed that pheromones are used by animals, especially insects, to communicate with each other on sublingual levels. InDr. Martha McClintlock published a now sexualoy study showing that the menstrual cycles of women who live together in close quarters tend to become synchronized over time.

McClintlock and others believe this effect is caused by human female pheromone communication and that this is only one example of a type of sexual communication that is constantly occurring between humans on the sublingual level. Jaiya and Heed, interpreting a few decades of research done by neuroscientist Dr. Douglas Fields, believe that pheromones "talk to the sex centers of the brain and can trigger a release of specific sex hormones," testosterone and estrogen. The effects of pheromones are clearest in cases where, for desirse "couples who for every reason should be disinterested in each other suddenly can't stay out of each other's presence after an 'up-close-and-personal encounter'" — coworkers on desirees business trip, for example.

In recent years, scientists have begun to suspect that a little-known cranial nerve may be the key to desires mysterious workings of pheromones.

First discovered in humans inthe "cranial nerve zero" or "terminal nerve" runs from the nasal cavity to the brain, ending in what Dr. Fields calls "the hot-button sex regions of the brain. But inDr. Fields discovered that while the brain of a pilot whale had no olfactory nerve whatsoever, it did have nerve zero. What difference does a whale brain make? Whales long ago evolved to lose the ability to smell, their noses becoming blowholes. And yet, though whales no longer have neural hardware for smell, they still have nerve zero, connecting the whale's blowhole to its brain.

Dr Fields did other experiments, discovering that stimulating nerve zero triggered automatic sexual responses in animals. Fields, along with many others, now believe that cranial nerve zero may be responsible for translating the signals of sex pheromones and initiating reproductive behavior. In other words, cranial nerve zero may be the bio-machinery for desire.

Pheromones may act as a kind of stoplight for sexual desire. They let us know that we're good to go, but they certainly don't work alone. Regardless what turned it on, something's still got to be driving the car. It turns xexually to be an intoxicating mix of hormones and neurochemicals firing in the brain. That "hot-button sex region" mentioned by Dr.

Fields is the septal nucleus, which, among other things, controls the release of the two primary sex hormones in the body: testosterone and estrogen. Both hormones sexualky essential in the process of desire. Desires know this, because as men grow older, they tend to lose testosterone and, as a result, develop desires and libido problems. Women also lose testosterone as they age.

However, due to poor results from tests involving testosterone administration in women with a loss of sexual desire, scientists now believe that a combination of testosterone and estrogen is the ultimate "love hormone. Estrogen and testosterone, in turn, stimulate neurochemicals in the brain — specifically, dopamine, serotonin, norapenephine and oxytocin.

Craig Malkin, a clinical psychologist who is currently writing a book about how we control desire, noted that the desires of this neurochemical cocktail can be potent. What are these chemicals actually doing? Various studies through the years have shown that all of these neurochemicals and more including epinephrine, alpha melanocyte polypeptide, phenethylamine, and gonadotropinsare in one way or another involved in sexual desire.

But when it comes down to it, it's pretty much impossible to isolate any one desiees. It's helpful to take a small step back to see why. And yet the brain-imaging studies done by Stephanie Ortigue and Francesco Bianchi-Demicheli in showed that sexual desire creates an incredibly intricate and non-linear network of brain activity, including lighting up regions in the brain typically devoted to "higher" functions, such as self-awareness and understanding others, prior to lighting up the more straightforward physical-response sections.

It all happens incredibly fast and often below the radar of consciousness. In many cases, people do not desires seem to know what turns them on.

Attempting a scientific explanation of sexually is a murky business: Ortigue and Bianci-Demicheli's study revealed more complexity. The interaction of neurochemicals involved in desire is dense and convoluted. And the mechanics of what may turn out to be the most essential element of desire - phermones and cranial nerve zero - still remains unclear. All of this confusion does help sexkally explain why treatment methods for loss of libido seem at best haphazard and often ineffective. In sexualpy cases, placebos tend to work just as well as the real thing.

Maybe the confusion sexually so bad. What's nice about the inability of science to fully unravel this mystery is that it keeps some of the magic of love and desire alive. After all, if desire was a thing known, perhaps it would no longer be a thing to keep us going. So perhaps it's best not to know after all. If you find it difficult to express that you'd like to try something new or are simply feeling a bit unsure about how to let you partner know what you…. Trauma-informed healthcare should be standard, not the exception.

Yet so often in the United States, accessing this kind of care can be next to…. Sexually health matters just as much as physical and mental health. But you may not always be comfortable talking desjres it just yet. We rounded up the…. Is changing the design of sex toys, lube, and condoms enough to revolutionize how we think about and have sex? Maude thinks so. By making sex…. Sophia Wallace is an artist educating women and men on the importance of the clitoris and female pleasure.

It's time to rethink what you know about…. Does bipolar disorder affect your sex life? We'll explain the issues faced during a manic or depressive episode, and tips to manage these effects.

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Hypoactive sexual desire disorder HSDD and sexual desires disorder SAD are an under-diagnosed group of disorders that affect men and women. Despite their prevalence, these two disorders are often not addressed by healthcare providers and patients due their private and awkward nature. Using the Sexual Response Cycle as the model of the physiological changes of humans during sexual stimulation and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition this article will review the current literature on the desire disorders focusing on prevalence, etiology, and treatment.

Despite their prevalence, these disorders are often not addressed by healthcare providers or patients due to their private and awkward nature. Using the Sexual Response Cycle as the model of the physiological changes of humans during sexual stimulation and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Desires Disorders, Fourth Edition DSMIV-TRthis article will review the current literature on the two desire disorders, focusing on prevalence, etiology, and treatment.

Sexuality is a complex interplay of multiple facets, including anatomical, physiological, psychological, developmental, cultural, and relational factors. Sexuality in adults consists of seven components:. Gender identity, orientation, and intention form sexual identity, whereas desire, arousal, and orgasm are components of sexual function.

The interplay of the first six components contributes to the emotional satisfaction of the experience. In addition to the multiple factors involved in sexuality, there is the added complexity of the corresponding sexuality of the partner.

The sexual response cycle consists of four phases: desire, arousal, orgasm, and resolution. Phase 1 of the sexual response cycle, desire, consists of three components: sexual drive, sexual motivation, and sexual wish. These reflect the biological, psychological, and social aspects of desire, respectively.

Sexual drive is produced through psychoneuroendocrine mechanisms. The limbic system and the preoptic area of the anterior-medial hypothalamus are believed to play a role in sexual drive. Drive is sexually highly influenced by hormones, medications e. Multiple physiologic changes occur in men and women that prepare them for orgasm, mainly perpetuated by vasocongestion. In men, increased blood flow causes erection, penile desires changes, and testicular elevation.

Vasocongestion in women leads to vaginal lubrication, clitoral tumescence, and labial color changes. In general, heart rate, blood pressure, and respiratory rate as well as myotonia of many muscle groups increase during this phase. Phase 3, orgasm, sexually continued elevation of respiratory rate, heart rate, and blood pressure and the voluntary and involuntary contraction of many muscle groups.

In men, ejaculation is perpetuated by the contraction of the urethra, vas, seminal vesicles, and prostate. In women, the uterus and lower third of the vagina contract involuntarily.

The duration of the final phase, resolution, is highly dependent on whether orgasm was achieved. If orgasm is not achieved, irritability and discomfort can result, potentially lasting for several hours. If orgasm is achieved, resolution may last 10 to 15 minutes with a sense of calm and relaxation. Respiratory rate, heart sexually, and blood pressure return to baseline and vasocongestion diminishes.

Women can have multiple successive orgasms secondary to a lack of a refractory period. As previously stated, there are two sexual desire disorders. These are substance-induced sexual dysfunction and a sexual disorder due to general medical condition. The prevalence of desire disorders is often underappreciated. The National Health and Social Life Survey found that 32 percent of women and 15 percent of men lacked sexual interest for several months within the last year.

The study population was noninstitutionalized US English speaking men and women between the ages of 18 and 59 years. The desire disorders can be considered on a continuum of severity with HSDD being the less severe of the two disorders. The proposed etiology of HSDD influences how it is subtyped i. For example, lifelong HSDD can be due to sexual identity issues gender sexually, orientation, or paraphilia or stagnation in sexual growth overly conservative background, developmental abnormalities, or abuse.

Conversely, difficulty in a new sexual relationship may lead to an acquired or situational subtype of HSDD. Although it is theoretically possible to have no etiology, all appropriate avenues sexually be explored, including whether the patient was truthful in responses to questions regarding sexuality desires if the patient is consciously aware that he or she has a sexual disorder.

Diagnosis and treatment of desire disorders is often difficult due to confounding factors, such as high rates of comorbid disorders and combined subtype sexual disorders involving medical and substance-induced contributors. Even with a detailed and accurate longitudinal history, honing in on the main factor can be difficult.

Decreased sexual desire has been seen in multiple psychiatric disorders. For example, individuals with schizophrenia and major depression experienced decreased sexual desire. Before treatment commences for HSDD and SAD, a thorough work-up must be done to first rule out a general medical condition or a substance that caused decreased desire or aversion.

This would include a thorough physical exam and laboratory work-up. An important physiological maker for which to test desires a thyroid profile, which would be abnormal in hypothyroidism and could cause decreased sexual desire. A variety of medical conditions can also decrease sexual desire e. Also, as we naturally age, desire can lessen. Decreases the neural monoamine oxidase enzymatic metabolic breakdown of norepinephrine and sexually I.

Two important biological mediators of sexual desire are dopamine and prolactin. Dopamine acting through the mesolimbic dopaminergic reward pathway is hypothesized to increase desire, whereas prolactin is thought to decrease libido, although the mechanisms are poorly understood. Dopamine directly inhibits prolactin release from the pituitary gland. Medications that increase prolactin release or sexually dopamine release can decrease sexual desire along with other sexual side effects.

If a patient has no history of sexual desire problems and has started a new sexual relationship, other possibilities for low sexual desire must be excluded.

Separate interviews with each partner are important to obtain a more accurate picture of the relationship. Important to remember that HSDD in men is often misdiagnosed as erectile dysfunction because of the common misconception that all men desire sex.

This myth has caused men to not seek treatment and has also led to misdiagnosis by health desires. This may partly explain the failure rate of adequately treating erectile dysfunction. As part of an initial history and physical examination, a sexual history is necessary because most patients will not divulge any sexual problems unless explicitly asked.

There are tests that deal entirely with sexual desire Sexual Desire Inventory and others have subscales for sexual desire International Index of Erectile Function.

Although there are many proposed treatments for desire disorders, there are virtually no controlled studies evaluating them.

From a psychodynamic perspective, sexual dysfunction sexually caused by unresolved unconscious conflicts of early development. While improvement may occur, the sexual dysfunction often becomes autonomous and persists, requiring additional techniques to be employed. An approach that has shown some success in the treatment of desire disorders as well as other sexual dysfunctions, pioneered by Masters and Johnson, is dual sex therapy.

The relationship is treated as a whole, with sexual dysfunction being one aspect of the relationship. Another important underlying premise of this form of therapy is that only one partner in the relationship is suffering from sexual dysfunction and absence of other major psychopathology. The aim is to reestablish open communication in the relationship. Homework assignments are given to the couple, the results of which are discussed at the following session.

The couple is not allowed to engage in any sexual behavior together other than what is assigned by the therapists. Assignments start with foreplay, which encourages the couple to pay closer attention to the entire process of the sexual response cycle as well as the emotions involved and not solely on achieving orgasm.

Eventually the couple progresses to intercourse with encouragement to try various positions without completing the act. Cognitive behavioral therapy has been shown to be efficacious in the treatment of anxiety, depression, and other psychiatric disorders. Its core premise is that activating events lead to negative automatic thoughts. These negative thoughts in turn result in disturbed negative feelings and dysfunctional behaviors.

The goal is to reframe these irrational beliefs through structured sessions. These sessions often include both partners. For example, men with sexual desire disorder or male erectile disorder may be instructed to masturbate to address performance anxiety related to sexually a full erection and ejaculation.

Finally, analytically oriented sex therapy combines sex therapy with psychodynamic and psychoanalytic therapy and has shown good results. SAD is often progressive and rarely reverses spontaneously. It is also treatment-resistant. Multiple hormones have been studied for treatment of sexual desire disorders. For example, androgen replacement has been studied as a possible treatment for HSDD. Some studies show no benefit, 27 whereas others studies do show some benefit.

Side effects of testosterone supplementation in women include weight gain, clitoral enlargement, facial hair, hypercholesterolemia, 32 changes in long-term breast cancer risk, and cardiovascular factors. Thus, an oophorectomy can cause a sudden drop of testosterone levels. Both groups, with a dose response relationship, showed increased desires of sexual activities and pleasurable orgasms.

Estrogen replacement in postmenopausal women can improve clitoral and vaginal sensitivity, increase libido, and decrease vaginal dryness and pain during intercourse. Estrogen desires available in several forms, including oral tablets, dermal patch, vaginal ring, sexually cream. Testosterone supplementation has demonstrated increased libido, increased vaginal and clitoral sensitivity, increased vaginal lubrication, and heightened sexual arousal.

Dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate DHEA-Sa testosterone precursor, has also been studied for the treatment of sexual desires disorders.

Sexually medications can be used to increase desire due to their receptor profiles. For example, amphetamine and methylphenidate can increase sexual desires by increasing dopamine release. Bupropion, a norepinephrine and dopamine reuptake inhibitor, has been shown to increase libido. But, bupropion SR group did show statistically significant difference in other measures of sexual function: increased pleasure and arousal, and frequency of orgasms.

Multiple herbal remedies, such as yohimbine and ginseng root, are purported to increase desire, but this has not been confirmed in studies. Sexual desire disorders are under-recognized, under-treated disorders leading to a great deal of morbidity in relationships. A desires history and physical examination are critical to properly diagnosis and determine the causative agent s.

With appropriate treatment, improvement can be made but continued research in sexual dysfunction is critical in the sensitive yet ubiquitous area. National Center for Biotechnology InformationU. Journal List Psychiatry Edgmont v.

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