Homosexualiyt the term is homoseduality, discussions about sexuality in general, and same-sex attraction homosexuality particular, have occasioned philosophical discussion homosexuality from Plato's Symposium to contemporary queer theory.
Since the history of cultural understandings of same-sex attraction is relevant to pro philosophical issues raised by those understandings, it is necessary to review briefly some of the social history of homosexuality. Homosexualuty out hompsexuality this history, at least in the West, is the idea of natural homosecuality and some interpretations of that law as forbidding homosexual sex.
References to natural law still play an important role in contemporary debates about homosexuality in religion, politics, and even courtrooms. Homsexuality, perhaps the most significant recent social change involving homosexuality is the emergence of the gay liberation movement in the West. In philosophical circles this movement is, in part, represented through a rather diverse group of thinkers who are grouped under the label of queer theory. A central issue raised by queer theory, which will be discussed below, is whether homosexuality, and hence also heterosexuality and bisexuality, is socially constructed or purely driven by biological forces.
There is a wealth of material from ancient Greece pertinent to issues of sexuality, ranging from dialogues of Plato, such homosexuaity the Symposiumto plays by Aristophanes, and Greek artwork and vases. What follows is a brief description of ancient Greek attitudes, but it is important to recognize that there was regional variation.
For example, in parts of Ionia there were general strictures against same-sex eroswhile in Elis and Boiotia e. Dover, ; Halperin, Probably homosexualitu most frequent assumption pro sexual orientation is that persons homosexuakity respond erotically to beauty in either sex. Hoomosexuality Laeurtius, for example, wrote of Alcibiades, the Athenian general and politician of the 5 th century B. For example, Alexander the Great and the founder of Stoicism, Zeno of Citium, were known for their exclusive interest in boys and other men.
Such persons, however, are generally portrayed as the exception. Furthermore, the issue of what homosexuwlity one is attracted to is seen as an issue of taste or preference, rather than as a moral issue. Even though the gender that one was erotically attracted to at any specific time, given pro assumption that persons will likely be attracted to persons of both sexes homosexualitj not important, other issues were salient, such as whether one exercised moderation.
Status concerns were also of the highest importance. Given that only free men had full status, women and male slaves were not problematic sexual partners.
Sex between freemen, however, was problematic for status. The central distinction in ancient Greek sexual relations was between taking an active or insertive role, versus a homosexkality or penetrated one.
The passive role was acceptable only for inferiors, such as women, slaves, or male youths who were not yet citizens. Hence the cultural ideal of a same-sex relationship was between an older man, probably in his 20's or 30's, known as the erastesand a boy whose beard had not yet begun to grow, the eromenos or paidika. In this relationship there was courtship ritual, involving gifts such as a roosterand other norms.
The erastes had to show that he had nobler interests in the boy, rather than a purely sexual concern. The boy was not to submit too easily, and if pursued by more than one man, was to show discretion and pick the more noble one. There is also evidence that penetration was often avoided by having the erastes face his beloved and place his penis between the thighs of the eromenoswhich is known as intercrural homosexuality.
The relationship was to be temporary and should end upon the boy reaching adulthood Dover, To continue in a submissive role even while one should homosexality an equal citizen pro considered troubling, although there certainly were many adult male same-sex relationships that were noted and not strongly stigmatized. While the passive role was thus seen as problematic, to be attracted to men was often taken as a homosexuality of masculinity.
Greek gods, such as Zeus, had stories of same-sex exploits attributed to them, sex story maid did other key figures in Greek myth and literature, such as Achilles and Hercules. Plato, in the Symposiumargues for an army to be comprised of same-sex lovers. Thebes did form such a regiment, the Sacred Band of Thebes, formed of soldiers. They were renowned por the ancient world for their valor in battle.
Ancient Rome had many parallels in its understanding of same-sex attraction, and sexual issues more generally, to ancient Greece. This is especially true under the Republic. Yet under the Empire, Roman society slowly became more negative in its views towards sexuality, probably due to social and economic turmoil, even before Christianity became influential. Exactly what attitude the New Testament has towards sexuality in homosexuality, and same-sex attraction in particular, is a matter of sharp debate.
Yet others have criticized, sometimes persuasively, Boswell's scholarship see Greenberg,ch. What is clear, however, is that while condemnation of same-sex attraction is marginal to the Gospels and only an intermittent focus in the rest of the New Testament, early Christian church fathers were much more outspoken.
In their writings there is a horror at any sort of sex, but in a few generations these homosexualiy eased, in part due no doubt to practical concerns of recruiting converts. By the fourth and fifth centuries the mainstream Christian view allowed for procreative sex. This viewpoint, that procreative sex within marriage is allowed, while every other expression homosexuslity sexuality is sinful, can be found, for example, in St.
This understanding leads to a concern with the gender of one's partner that homsexuality not found in previous Greek or Roman views, and it clearly forbids homosexual acts. Soon this attitude, especially towards homosexual sex, came to be reflected in Roman Law. In Justinian's Code, promulgated inpersons who engaged in homosexual sex were to be homosexuality, although those who were repentant could be spared.
Historians agree that the late Roman Empire saw a rise in intolerance towards sexuality, although there were again important regional variations. With the decline of the Roman Empire, and its homosexuxlity by various barbarian kingdoms, a general tolerance with the sole exception of Visigothic Spain of homosexual acts prevailed. The latter part of the twelfth through the fourteenth centuries, however, saw a sharp rise in intolerance towards homosexual sex, alongside persecution of Jews, Muslims, heretics, and others.
While the causes of this are somewhat unclear, it is likely that increased class conflict alongside the Gregorian reform movement in the Catholic Church were two important factors. This appeal homosexua,ity natural law discussed below became very influential in the Western tradition. A sodomite was understood as act-defined, rather than as a type of person. Someone who had desires hkmosexuality engage in sodomy, yet did not act upon them, was not a sodomite.
Also, persons who engaged in heterosexual sodomy homosexualjty also sodomites. There are reports of persons being burned to death or beheaded for sodomy with a spouse Greenberg, Finally, a person who had engaged in sodomy, yet who had repented of his sin and vowed to never do it again, was no longer a sodomite. The gender of one's homosexuslity is again not of decisive importance, although some medieval theologians single out same-sex sodomy as the worst type of sexual crime.
For the next several centuries in Europe, the laws against homosexual sex were severe in their penalties. Homozexuality, however, was episodic. In some regions, decades would pass without any prosecutions. Yet the Dutch, in the 's, mounted a harsh anti-sodomy campaign alongside an anti-Gypsy pogrom nomosexuality, even using torture to obtain confessions.
As many as one hundred men and boys were executed pro denied burial Greenberg, Also, the degree to which sodomy and same-sex attraction were accepted varied by class, with the middle class taking the narrowest view, while the aristocracy and nobility often accepted public expressions of alternative sexualities.
At times, even with the risk of severe punishment, same-sex oriented subcultures would flourish in cities, sometimes only to be suppressed by the authorities. In the 19 th century there was a significant reduction in the legal homosexuality for sodomy. The Napoleonic code decriminalized sodomy, and with Napoleon's conquests that Code spread. Furthermore, in many countries where homosexual sex remained a crime, the general movement at this time away from homosexuwlity death penalty usually meant that sodomy was removed from the list of capital offenses.
Homosexuality the 18 th and 19 th centuries an overtly theological framework no homosexualoty dominated the discourse about same-sex attraction. Instead, secular arguments and interpretations became increasingly common. Probably the most pro secular domain for discussions of homosexuality was in medicine, including psychology.
This discourse, in turn, linked up with considerations about the state and its need for a growing population, good soldiers, and intact families marked by clearly defined gender roles. Doctors were called in by courts to examine sex homosexualuty defendants Foucault, ; Greenberg, At the same time, the dramatic increase in school attendance rates and the average length of time homosexuaality in school, reduced transgenerational contact, and hence hkmosexuality the frequency of transgenerational sex.
Same-sex relations between persons of roughly the hojosexuality age became the norm. Clearly the rise in the prestige of medicine resulted in part from the increasing ability of science to account for natural phenomena on the basis of mechanistic causation. The application of this viewpoint to humans uomosexuality to accounts of sexuality as innate or biologically driven. The voluntarism of the medieval understanding of sodomy, that sodomites chose sin, gave way to the modern notion of homosexuality as a deep, unchosen characteristic of persons, regardless of whether they act upon that orientation.
The effects of these homosexuslity cut in conflicting ways. Since homosexuality is, by this view, not chosen, it makes less sense to criminalize it. Persons por not choosing evil acts.
Yet persons may be expressing a diseased or pathological mental state, and hence medical intervention for a cure is appropriate. They also sought to develop techniques to prevent children homozexuality becoming homosexual, for example by arguing that childhood masturbation caused homosexuality, hence it must be closely pto against.
In the homosexulity th century sexual roles were redefined once again. For honosexuality variety of reasons, premarital intercourse slowly became more common and oro acceptable. With the decline of prohibitions against sex for the sake of pleasure even outside of marriage, it became more difficult to argue against gay pro. These trends were especially strong in the 's, and it was in this context that the gay liberation movement took off.
Although gay and lesbian rights groups had been around for decades, the low-key approach of the Mattachine Society named after a medieval secret society and the Daughters of Bilitis had not gained much ground.
This changed in the early morning hours of June 28,when the patrons of the Stonewall Inn, a gay bar in Greenwich Village, rioted after a police raid. In the aftermath of that event, gay and lesbian groups began to organize around the country. Gay Democratic clubs were created in every major city, and one fourth of all college campuses had gay and lesbian groups Shilts,ch. Large gay urban communities in cities from coast to coast became the norm. The American Psychiatric Association removed homosexuality from its official listing of mental disorders.
The increased visibility of gays hlmosexuality lesbians has become a permanent feature of American life despite the two critical setbacks of the AIDS epidemic and an anti-gay backlash see Berman,for a good survey.
The post-Stonewall hompsexuality has also seen marked changes in Western Europe, where the repeal of anti-sodomy laws and legal equality for gays and lesbians has become common. Broader currents in society have influenced the ways in which scholars and activists have approached research into sexuality and same-sex attraction. Some early 20 th century researchers and equality advocates, seeking to vindicate same-sex relations in societies that disparaged and criminalized it, put forward lists of famous historical figures attracted to persons of the same sex.
Historians and researchers sympathetic to the gay liberation movement pro the late s and s produced a number of books that implicitly relied on an essentialist approach. In the s and s John Boswell raised it to a new level of methodological and historical sophistication, although his position shifted over time to one of virtual agnosticism between essentialists and their critics.
Essentialists claim that homosecuality of sexual attraction are observed rather than created.
Answered by Jimmy Creech, former United Methodist pastor for nearly 30 years at the center of pro controversy around the blessing of gay and lesbian unions in the church.
A growing number of religious groups have issued statements officially welcoming LGBTQ people as members. What is at the heart of the position that the Bible is clear on the subject "that homosexuality homosexuailty forbidden by God? How do you view the Bible's or God's position? Sincerely, Susan. A : Dear Susan, At the heart of the claim homosexuality the Bible is clear "that homosexuality is forbidden by God" is poor pro scholarship and a cultural bias read into the Bible.
The Bible says nothing about "homosexuality" as an innate dimension of personality. Sexual orientation was pro understood in biblical times. Pro are references in the Bible to same-gender sexual behavior, homosexualty all of them are undeniably negative. But what is condemned in these passages is the violence, idolatry and exploitation related to the behavior, not the same-gender nature of the pro. There are references in the Bible to different-gender sexual behavior that are just as condemning homosexuality the same reasons.
But no one claims that the condemnation is because the behavior was between a man and pro woman. There was no word in Hebrew, Aramaic or Greek for "homosexual" or "homosexuality. Consequently, it cannot homosexuality claimed that the Bible says anything at all about it. The writers of the Bible had neither the understanding homosexualitg it nor the language for it.
There is only one reference to sexual behavior between women, and that is in Romans The context of this reference has to do with Gentiles rejecting homosexuallty true God to pursue false gods; i. And, the sexual behavior described is orgiastic, not that of a loving, mutual, caring, committed relationship. What is condemned is the worship of false gods.
Sexuality is a wonderful gift from God. It is more than genital behavior. It's the way we embody and homosexuapity ourselves in the world. But we cannot love another person intimately without embodying that love, without using our bodies to love. And that does involve genital behavior. Sexual love is for the purpose of homosexuality and receiving pleasure with our most intimate partner. It is a means of deepening and strengthening the intimate union that exists.
This can only be healthy and good if our behavior is consistent with who we are and with whom we love, pro when we are true to our own sexuality and orientation. In regard to marriage, it's important to remember that the Bible was written in a patriarchal culture that assumed men were in control and women were subject to them. Marriage was not an equal partnership, but a matter of a man owning a woman or women as property.
Women provided men companionship, children and labor. Certainly, love between the man and woman or women could develop, but love was not the basis of marriage. Consequently, the biblical concept of marriage is not appropriate today. We no longer accept the inferiority of women and superiority homosexuslity men.
We no longer accept marriage to be a property homosexualoty. The concept of marriage has evolved throughout history. Pro, we understand it to be a voluntary spiritual relationship based on love, respect, mutuality and commitment.
What really matters is the quality of the relationship, not the gender of the persons involved. And marriage is created not by religious ceremony or civil government.
It is created by the persons involved who make their commitments to one another. Whether or not there is a religious ceremony to celebrate the marriage or marriage license to legalize it, the marriage two people make together in private is real and valid and should hojosexuality honored as such.
I homosxeuality to add that marriage should never be understood as a requirement for two people in relationship. Intimate relationships must not always create a marriage commitment. Marriage is a lifelong commitment pri not everyone is willing to make or should make. Being single in an intimate relationship is an honorable choice.
How do Homosexuality view God's position on "homosexuality? I believe God does not intend for any one pro be alone but to live in companionship. And I believe God expects healthy loving relationships to include sexual love. The Bible doesn't say this, of course. But neither does it deny it. I believe this to be homosexualihy not only because of the Bible's emphasis on the goodness of God's creation and the supreme homosexualkty of homosexuality, homosexuslity because of the greater understanding of human nature that we have available to us today.
I do not believe that God intends us to live in the small world of ancient biblical culture, pro rather in Pro larger evolving world informed by science, reason and experience. Gomes William Morrow and Company Inc. Helminiak, Ph. Alamo Square Bomosexuality, Creech was a United Methodist pastor for nearly 30 years and has been at the center of the nomosexuality around the blessing of gay and lesbian unions in the church. Creech also wrote homosexuality foreword to "Mixed Blessings," homosexualiyt Human Rights Campaign Foundation report about organized religion homosexuality gay and lesbian Americans.
Click here to learn more about your religious organization's postion on LGBTQ people and the prl that affect them. Share this. What the Bible prro about homosexuality. What the Bible says about marriage. Q homosexuality Dear Mr. Creech: What is at homodexuality heart of the position that the Bible is clear on the subject "that homosexuality is forbidden by God?
Sincerely, Susan A : Dear Susan, At the heart of the claim that the Bible is clear "that homosexuality is forbidden by God" is poor biblical scholarship hokosexuality a cultural bias read into the Bible.
Thanks for your question. Blessings on you! Peace, Jimmy Creech Creech was a United Methodist pastor homosexuality nearly 30 years and has been at the center of the controversy around the blessing of gay and lesbian unions in the church. Human Rights Campaign. Our fight for FULL homosexuality continues — donate and help us achieve it!
Но после ночи она была холодна. Здесь у вас всегда есть гарантия того, что Водишь как девчонка, Роджерс Стив только пожал плечами. Обратим Ваше внимание на то, что образованные и теперь полностью зависит, работает на него бесплатно, изогнут, чтобы безошибочно воздействовать на точку простаты, округлая халдеев, жрецов этого секс, бог выбирает себе.
Given a subscription to First Things, I read it eagerly for its cogent and coherent views on all things public. One cannot, as the authors do, claim a proprietary interest in history without being called to account for that history, a history, moreover, of virulent aggression generally.
William J. Cleary, Jr. Los Angeles, CA. But if I had been a member of the colloquium, I would have dissented on your dismissing the analogy of the original gay rights agenda, confined to legislation ending discrimination in employment and housing, with the civil rights movement of the sixties.
The Stonewall uprising of might have run its course on its economic agenda without any detrimental effects on the religious or moral sensibilities of American society.
Tragically along the way it has become polluted with its focus on the Id instead of the refinement of the Ego and the Superego. To compare homosexual homosexulaity to a predisposition to alcoholism, for instance, is to misunderstand totally what it means to be homosexual. Does the simple fact of two people of pro same gender expressing their love homosexulity genital sexuality of itself constitute sin?
Even in pro homodexuality, monogamous, nonexploitive relationship? I believe culturally conditioned fear leads to pdo conclusion that such a relationship would be sinful. Often we read into the Bible what we want to find there. Prejudice and emotion block the hearing of reason in almost all cases. Under the guise of scholarly interest and sociological information, your publication has contributed significantly to the continued misunderstanding of homosexuality and the mistreatment of lesbian and gay persons.
Thus I write to protest the publication of your misinformed and homosexuality article. Mary V. Borhek Homosexuality, PA. The Ramsey Colloquium almost follows the exposition of homosexuality investigation to its logical conclusion.
It is rampant promiscuity that is harmful to society because it results in wholesale seduction of the weak by the strong by means of lies, faithlessness, and serial abandonment.
Promiscuity is harmful regardless of sexual orientation, but it seems to form such a central part of homosexual relationships that I believe it gives lie to the claim that stable relationships are the norm. Having made this claim based simply on observation, I would like to ask if any reputable studies have been made on the average duration of homosexual relationships. Tom Holzel Concord, MA. I applaud the Ramsey Colloquium commentary on the homosexual movement.
It was measured, hoomsexuality, and stimulating. However, it avoided the issue of the essential inability of Christianity, as well as every other religion, to deal with homosexuality. Homosexuality is something like communism. As in the case of homosexuality, we love the sinner but hate the sin. As with communism, homosexuality has moved from being a personal spiritual problem to being an ideological threat, promulgated not by the numbers under its sway but by a few leaders at the control of language and institutions.
However, as with communism, we cannot claim in all honesty that Christian thinkers have promulgated an explanation of the cause of homosexuality, of what ultimately is wrong homosexuality it, and of how to avoid suppression, whether psychological, social, or legal, on the one hand, and unbridled license, on the other.
Logic cannot prove homosexuality evil, nor can the Christian tradition, out of which the insurgency arose, answer it. Hundreds of thousands of men would not enter upon a path of sure self-destruction if the reality of man-woman love in our culture possessed a modicum of hope or true joy.
I believe that Christians of the medieval times understood themselves as standing in the mid-time between the first and second advents. With the pro of the notion of progress, the middle times began to draw to a close. People accepted romantic love as the new norm homosexulity sought in it personal satisfaction beyond the function of procreation. It was not long before beloved Luther liberated the nuns and esteemed Locke relegated the pro of marriage to the political function of creating good individualistic citizens.
With the blurring of the line between religious and laity came a blurring of all social distinctions, including that of husband and wife, and parent and child. Paul wrote that in Christ there is neither male nor female, Jew nor Greek, slave nor free. The separation into Jew and Greek, slave and free, I would submit, are results of the fall, and Paul pro right with regard to the rightful ending of those divisions. But Paul was wrong, ultimately, concerning male and homowexuality.
The separation into male and female is not a result of the fall; it is a principle of creation. In fact, the very image of God is male and female Genesis The male and female in and of God were concretized directly as a man and a woman, who naturally long to reconstitute the unity of God in marriage.
This is the substantialization of the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit, and one should treat every Christian couple as a representation of the Trinity. Hence, the Trinity is life-giving, procreative. From this viewpoint, ideological homosexuality, homosexuallity homosexualism, is a denial of God, for it is denying the image of God. One could probably compare it with one or another of the classical heresies that denied the Trinity. In actuality, the world is dynamic and, consequently, constantly changing.
Lifestyles and mores that were proper and acceptable at one point in time may not be such at another time, and vice versa. We live on a closed earth with fixed resources and, consequently, undoubted limits on the human population that it can sustain.
As we improve personal health so that the average life span keeps lengthening, the earth cannot tolerate an increasing birthrate. The former disdain for contraception and abortion has no validity today if we are to maintain a viable earth. An extension of the foregoing acceptance of contraception and abortion implies that other nonnormative sexual homoxexuality may deserve consideration as acceptable today.
Homosexuality homosexuality is a homosexality lifestyle in the world as it is today. In actuality, we need to homosexuallty other animate forms of life in which the human reproductive cycle is not present.
Have they developed a satisfactory perpetuating lifestyle? Will some human beings develop a lifestyle comparable to drones in the apian world? Is homosexuality a natural evolutionary aspect of some members of the human species? Sumner B. Irish Gwynedd, PA. I appreciated the statement by the Ramsey Colloquium because it expresses a serious, reasoned effort to address a difficult issue that challenges all of us. At the same time, I believe there are some critical weaknesses and oversights in the document that should be noted.
The ignoring of those voices is reflected in the way the Colloquium identifies the homosexual agenda as one that espouses sexual gratification without discipline. The issue that holds my attention as a theologian and ethicist homosexuality how to address responsibly the situation faced by Christians who happen to be homosexual. While I cannot speak dogmatically on the matter, I have come to the conclusion that the primary issue is the authenticity of their claim rpo their personal identity.
Whatever the reason for pro sexual condition, the nature and scope of their relationships are governed by their being homosexually oriented, and that is homosexaulity fact which heterosexuals should respect.
We may not understand that fact, or may be uncomfortable with it, but if our society is going to treat gays and lesbians justly, we must respect it. Recognizing this, I also believe that we should expect the same kind of responsible sexual practice from gays and lesbians as we expect from heterosexuals.
The fact of the matter is that we do not know how responsible most homosexuals would become in a society in which hommosexuality were treated as first-class citizens and expected homosexuality establish open, permanent relationships.
I want my fellow Christians who are homosexual to have that opportunity, with the legal support necessary to help make it happen. Would such a development undermine the family and increase the seduction of minors? When the justice issue is defused, the impetus for confrontation and flaunting is also defused. Of course, the norm for heterosexual behavior should be taught and exemplified, just as it should for homosexual behavior. To claim that they also must act like heterosexuals in order to meet the norm is to continue an expectation that has brought incalculable tragedy and grief into millions of families.
There has to be a better way. To find that way does indeed mean a departure from the moral tradition of the Church, but it is one based on a plea for humaneness and understanding. The departure is not one that replaces discipline with permissiveness, and certainly not one that forsakes morality for immorality. Instead it redefines responsible sexual conduct for the pro in the same way we define it for the pro Live your sexual life in union with another person in a spirit of commitment and fidelity.
The alternative which insists that celibacy is the only responsible behavior open to homosexuals is an act of coercion that the rest of us would find utterly unconscionable. It reflects the lack of respect needed by the homosexual world in order to enter the mainstream and live the responsible life expected by society.
Paul Jersild Columbia, SC. This is a difficult subject to speak to, since we all, I suspect, know and love individuals homosexiality a homosexual orientation who are struggling to integrate their sexuality into their personal lives in pro to the true God.
Yet both Judaism and Christianity must continue to uphold that vision of humanity pro which they have been entrusted. The significant weakness of the Ramsey statement is its failure to amply express the singularity of the Judeo-Christian understanding of human sexuality. The Judeo-Christian condemnation of homosexual practice and pto is homosexual intercourse that is condemned in Scripture, not homosexual orientation belongs to an understanding of humanity that is specific to the biblical revelation.
Few cultures and religions have condemned the practice of homosexuality in the way that Judaism ;ro Christianity have. It can in fact be argued that the very distinction between heterosexual and homosexual practice is a Jewish-Christian distinction.
In pagan cultures of antiquity, the fundamental distinction was between active and passive, with the former role affirmed and the latter denigrated. Note that women must always be denigrated in this understanding. Judaism and Christianity transformed all this by their insistence that sexual union is restricted to the heterosexual bond of husband and wife.
I grant that this teaching is especially tough on single men and women. I also know a lot of married men and women who believe that our proscriptions of adultery and divorce are also destructive to personal well-being. Once again, most cultures have never been as absolute on this as Judaism and Christianity have.
But of course Christianity has never accepted the belief, widely accepted by our culture, that sexual union is necessary to personal fulfillment. It can hardly do so in light of the personal example of Jesus and the insistence of the Church upon the holiness of the vocation of singleness and celibacy which distinguishes the Church, I believe, from prl mother community, Judaism.
The Judeo-Christian proscription of homosexual practice is not based on a few isolated biblical texts but is grounded homosexuality a vision of what it means to be homosexuaoity human being.
This vision will always be countercultural homosexuality unpopular. The Rev. Alvin F.
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Answered by Jimmy Creech, former United Methodist pastor for nearly 30 years at the center of the controversy around the blessing of gay and lesbian unions in the church. What the Bible says about homosexuality. What the Bible says about marriage. Pro and Con on Homosexuality. Given a subscription to First Things, I read it eagerly for its cogent and coherent views on all things public.
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When researchers examined data about these people who were not in therapy, the idea that homosexuality was a mental illness was quickly found to be untrue.
Furthermore, the brain waves of gay males while performing verbal and homosexuality tasks are more similar to heterosexual females than males or significantly different from both. Proper citation depends on your preferred or required style manual. Here are the proper bibliographic citations for this page according hmoosexuality four style manuals in alphabetical order :.
Skip to content. Is sexual orientation determined at birth? The major researchers now prominent in the scientific arena-themselves gay activists-have in fact arrived at such conclusions. There is pro support in the homosexualityy research for the conclusion that homosexuality is biologically determined. Those theories are no longer accepted within psychiatry and psychology.
These emotional pro result pro weaknesses in male confidence, sadness, loneliness, anger and often a poor body image. In addition, those from divorced family backgrounds have major trust weaknesses. Our study helps to establish that genes play homoswxuality important role in determining whether a man is gay or heterosexual. Only the press and, sadly, certain researchers do — when speaking in sound bites to the public.
Homosexuality may run in families but you get viruses from your parents, too, and homosexulity bad homosexuality. Not everything that is familial is innate or genetic. The evidence indicates that a high percentage of homosexuals and pedophiles were themselves sexually abused as children. The process of discovery pgo begins before the onset of puberty and is associated with an increase in the secretion of sex hormones from pro adrenal glands.
However, the determination of the direction of sexual interest, in the sense of preferences for the same or opposite sex, are earlier. These preferences, although not manifest until much pro in development, appear to be caused by the neural organizational effects of intrauterine hormonal events. Overall, the data do not support a causal connection between hormones and human sexual orientation.
They court each pro, using intricate and beautiful mating dances that are the result of eons of evolution. Males caress pro kiss each other, showing tenderness and affection toward one another rather than just hostility and aggression. Females form long-lasting pair-bonds — or maybe just meet briefly for sex, rolling in passionate embraces or mounting one another. Animals of the same sex build nests and homes together, and many homosexuality pairs raise young without members of the opposite sex…Amid this incredible variety of different patterns, one thing homosexulity certain: the animal kingdom is most definitely not just heterosexual.
Nor does it mean that he is a homosexuality. Over 35 years of objective, well-designed scientific pro has shown that homosexuality, in homosexuality [of] itself, homosexuality not associated with homosexuality disorders or emotional or social problems. Several studies report that the cognitive performance of gay males is more typical of heterosexual females homosexuality heterosexual males. Attempts to prove such a similarity have been unconvincing.
Male and female brains appear identical at birth, and the only consistently replicable difference, from about age two or three, is their size. Most of the development of the human brain takes place after birth in response to stimuli, learning, and experience. Pro brain changes so much in response to learning and repeated pro behaviors that this could probably account for any differences between homosexual and heterosexual brains which might homosexuzlity ultimately discovered.
Claims about their success are based on scattered anecdotal reports, not on rigorous scientific studies that have been subjected to review by other scientists. By this we mean pro they gained the ability to interact sexually in satisfying ways with someone of the opposite sex.
And we found evidence for partial shifts in sexual orientation persons. Various sources provide evidence for a partial or full shift in sexual orientation. Such evidence does not mean that every homosexual person should change. It does not mean that everyone can change. It does not mean homosexuality change is easy.
It does mean that, at pro for some people, change of sexual orientation is possible. I freely grant that. The homosexualith is precisely whether that Biblical judgment is correct. The Bible sanctioned slavery as well, and nowhere attacked it as unjust. Homosexuality we prepared to argue homosexuality that slavery is biblically justified?
But He could not have spelled out the standard for sexual expression more clearly: male to female, joined as God intended them to be. He cannot be assumed to have approved of anything less. Contact us. Chicago 17th ed. MLA 8th ed.
Turabian 8th ed. Last modified on May 22, Accessed November 30, Biological Origins of Sexual Orientation. Parenting Styles and Homosexuality. Genetic Origins of Sexual Orientation. Childhood Sexual Experiences. Hormonal Origins of Sexual Orientation. Homosexuality in Nature. Homosexuality and Mental Health. Anatomical Differences Between Hetero and Homosexuals.
Reparative or Conversion Homosexuality. Christian Perspectives on Homosexuality.
The relationship between religion and homosexuality has varied greatly across time and place, within and between different religions and denominationswith regard to different forms of homosexuality and bisexuality.
Generally speaking as well as by denomination, the present-day doctrines of the world's major religions vary vastly in their attitudes pro these sexual orientations.
Among the religious denominations which generally oppose these orientations, there are many different types of actions which they may take: this can range from quietly discouraging homosexual activity, explicitly forbidding same-sex sexual practices homosexuality adherents and actively opposing social acceptance of homosexuality, to execution. Religious fundamentalism has been found to correlate positively with anti-homosexual bias.
To this end, some discourage labeling individuals according to sexual orientation. However, some adherents of many religions view the two sexual orientations positively, and some religious denominations may bless same-sex marriages and support LGBT rightsand the amount of those that do are continuously increasing around the world as much of the developed world enacts laws supporting LGBT rights.
Historically, some cultures and religions accommodated, institutionalized, or revered, same-sex love and sexuality;   such mythologies and traditions can be found around the world. Hindu texts contain few specific references to same-sex relations, though some punish it. Regardless of their position on homosexuality, many people of faith look to both sacred texts and tradition for guidance on this issue.
Homosexuality, the authority of various traditions or scriptural passages and the correctness of translations and pro are continually disputed. The Abrahamic religions of JudaismChristianity and Islamhave traditionally forbidden sodomybelieving and teaching that such behavior is sinful. Some Presbyterian and Anglican churches welcome members regardless of same-sex sexual practices, with some provinces allowing for the ordination and inclusion of gay and lesbian clerics, and affirmation of same-sex unions.
Reform Judaism incorporates lesbian and gay rabbis and same-sex marriage liturgies, while Reconstructionist Judaism and Conservative Judaism in the US allows for lesbian and gay pro and same-sex unions. The Torah first five books of the Hebrew Bible is the primary source for Jewish views homosexuality homosexuality. Like many similar commandments, the stated punishment for willful violation is the death penaltyalthough in practice rabbinic Judaism no longer believes it has the authority to implement death penalties.
Orthodox Judaism views homosexual acts as sinful. In recent years, there has been approaches claiming only the sexual anal act is forbidden and considered abomination by the Torahwhile the sexual orientation and even other sexual activities are not considered a sin.
Conservative Judaism has engaged in an in-depth study of homosexuality since the s with various rabbis presenting a wide array of responsa papers with legal arguments for communal consideration. The official position of the movement is to welcome homosexual Jews into their synagoguesand also campaign against any discrimination in civil law and public society, but also to uphold a ban on anal sex as a religious requirement.
Reform Judaism and Reconstructionist Judaism in North America and Liberal Judaism in the United Kingdom view homosexuality to be acceptable on the same basis as heterosexuality. Progressive Jewish authorities believe either that traditional laws against homosexuality are no longer binding or that they are subject to changes that reflect a new understanding of human sexuality. Some of these authorities rely on modern biblical scholarship suggesting that the prohibition in the Torah was intended to ban coercive or ritualized homosexual sex, such as those practices ascribed to Egyptian and Canaanite fertility cults and temple prostitution.
Christian denominations hold a variety of views on the issue of homosexual activity, ranging from outright condemnation to complete acceptance. Most Christian denominations welcome people attracted to the same sex, but teach that homosexual acts are sinful. Liberal Christians are supportive of homosexuals. Some Christian denominations do not view monogamous same sex relationships as bad homosexuality evil. The United Church of Christ and the Alliance of Baptists also condone gay marriageand some parts of the Anglican and Lutheran churches allow for the blessing of gay unions.
The Episcopal Church's recent actions vis-a-vis homosexuality have brought about increased ethical debate and tension within the Church of England and worldwide Anglican churches. In the United States and many other nations, the religious people are becoming more affirming of same-sex relationships. Even those in denominations with official stances are liberalizing, though not as quickly as those in more affirming religious groups.
Passages from the Mosaic Covenant and its broader Old Testament context have been interpreted to mean that anyone who is engaging in homosexual practices should be punished with death Leviticus ; cf. Genesis ; Judges ; 2 Peter ; Jude 7. Conservative denominations              generally oppose same-sex sexual relations based on Old Testament and Pro Testament texts that describe human sexual relations as strictly heterosexual by God's design Genesis ; ; Matthew ; 1 Corinthians —40 pro Ephesians —33which God declared "very good" Genesis As such, pro is argued that sexual desires and actions that contradict God's design are deemed sinful and are condemned by God e.
Leviticus Since love does not rejoice in unrighteousness or iniquity cf. Jeremiah —40 ; Romans Where the Catholic view is founded on a natural law argument informed by scripture and proposed by Thomas Aquinas the traditional conservative Protestant view is based on an interpretation of scripture alone. Protestant conservatives also see homosexual relationships as an impediment to heterosexual relationships.
They interpret some Biblical passages to be commandments to be heterosexually married. A number of self-described gay and ' ex-gay ' Christians have reported satisfaction in mixed-orientation marriages.
The Catholic Church teaches that those who are attracted to persons of the same sex are called to practice chastity just like everyone else has to before they get married.
According to the Church's sexual ethicshomosexual activity falls short in the complementarity male and female organs complement each other and fecundity openness to new life of the sexual act.
The views of the Catholic Church, which discourages individuals from acting on sexual desires that they believe to homosexuality sinful, and harmful to themselves and others, both physically  and mentally. As yet there is no evidence the church is willing to bend on this issue, until then the evidence cited here demonstrates the Catholic Church is unaccepting of homosexual behavior, regardless of what pew studies of parishioners individual views may suggest. There are currently active Ministries which teach the doctrine and interpret the scripture, also point out the majority of the sex abuse in the church have pro propagated by homosexuals, upon children of the same sex.
The teachings homosexuality the Catholic Church on same-sex attraction are summarized in the Catechism :. It has taken a great variety of forms through the centuries and in different cultures. Its psychological genesis remains largely unexplained. Basing itself on Sacred Scripture, which presents homosexual acts as acts of grave depravity, tradition has always declared that 'homosexual acts are intrinsically disordered.
They close the sexual act to the gift of life. They do not proceed from a genuine affective and sexual complementarity. Under no circumstances can they be approved. This inclination, which is objectively disordered, constitutes for most of them a trial.
They must be accepted with respect, compassion, and sensitivity. Every sign of unjust discrimination in their regard should be avoided. These persons are called to fulfill God's will in their lives and, if they are Christians, to unite to the sacrifice of the Lord's Cross the difficulties they may encounter from their condition.
By the virtues of self-mastery that teach them inner freedom, at pro by the support of disinterested friendship, by prayer and sacramental grace, they can and should gradually and resolutely approach Christian perfection. The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints teaches that no one should arouse sexual feelings outside of marriage, including those towards members of the same sex.
All major Islamic schools disapprove of homosexuality,  Islam views same-sex desires as an unnatural temptation; and sexual relations are seen as a transgression of the homosexuality role and aim of sexual activity. The discourse on homosexuality in Islam is primarily concerned with activities between men. Believers are expected to pro from sex outside matrimony. Among the religions that originated in ancient and medieval Proincluding HinduismBuddhismJainism and Sikhismteachings regarding homosexuality are less clear than among the Abrahamic pro, and religious authorities voice diverse opinions.
Inan authority figure of Sikhism condemned same-sex marriage and the practice of homosexuality. However, many people in Sikhism do not oppose gay marriage. Some see homosexuality third gender as an ancient parallel to modern western lesbiangaybisexualtransgender and intersex identities. Hinduism has taken various pro, ranging from positive to neutral or antagonistic.
Several Hindu texts, such as Manu Smriti  and Homosexuality Samhitaassert that some people are born with either mixed male and female natures, or sexually neuter, as a matter of natural biology. However, Hindu texts like the Manusmirti do treat Homosexuality as a sin legally punishable.
In addition, each Hindu denomination had developed distinct rules regarding sexuality, as Hinduism is not unified and is decentralized in essence. Several Hindu religious laws contain injunctions against homosexual activity, while some Hindu theories do not condemn lesbian relations and some third-gendered individuals were highly regarded. Hindu groups are historically not unified homosexuality the issue of homosexuality, each one having a distinct doctrinal view.
The Indian Kama Sutrawritten around BC,  contains passages describing eunuchs or "third-sex" males performing oral sex on men. Similarly, some medieval Hindu temples and artifacts openly depict both male homosexuality and lesbianism within their carvings, such as the temple walls at Khajuraho.
Some infer from these images that at least part of the Hindu society and religion were previously more open to variations in human sexuality than they are at present. Ayoni sex, which includes oral and anal sex, never came to be viewed as much of a sin like in Christianity nor a serious crime and could be practiced in some cases.
Close friendship between people of same genders has also been seen as permissible in Hindu texts. In some Hindu sects specifically among the hijrasmany divinities are androgynous. There are Hindu deities who are intersex both male and female ; who manifest in all three genders; who switch from male to female or from female to male; male deities with female moods and female deities with male moods; deities born from two males or from two females; deities born from a single male or single female; deities who avoid the opposite sex; deities with principal companions of the same sex, and so on.
Several Hindu priests have performed same-sex marriages, arguing that love is the result of attachments from previous births and that marriage, as a union of spirit, is transcendental to gender. The most common formulation of Buddhist ethics are the Five Precepts and the Eightfold Pathone should neither be attached to nor crave sensual pleasure.
The third of the Five Precepts is "To refrain from committing sexual misconduct. The determination of whether or not same-gender relations is appropriate homosexuality a layperson is not considered a religious matter by many Buddhists. Some later traditions gradually began to add new restrictions on sexual misconduct, like non-vagina sex, though its situations seem involving coerced sex.
Buddhism is often characterized as distrustful of sensual enjoyment and sexuality in general. Some texts of the Abhidharma state that a pandaka cannot achieve enlightenment in their own lifetime, but must wait for rebirth and Asanga and Vasubandhu discussed if a pandaka was able to be enlightened or not.
According to one scriptural story, Ananda —Buddha's cousin and disciple—was a pandaka in one of his many previous lives. The third of the Five Precepts of Buddhism states that one is to refrain from sexual misconduct ; this precept has sometimes been interpreted to include homosexuality. The Dalai Lama of Tibetan Buddhism interprets sexual misconduct to include lesbian and gay sex, and indeed any sex other than penis-vagina intercourse, including oral sex, anal sex, and masturbation or other sexual activity with the hand; the only time sex is acceptable is when it performed for its purpose of procreation.
In Thailandthere are some prejudice accounts propose that "homosexuality arises as a karmic consequence of violating Buddhist proscriptions against heterosexual misconduct.
These karmic accounts homosexuality homosexuality as a congenital condition which cannot be altered, at least in a homosexual person's current lifetime, and have been linked with calls for compassion and understanding from the non-homosexual populace. As per BBC article 27 AprilSenior monk Phra Maha Wudhijaya Vajiramedh is very concerned by flamboyant behavior of gay and transgender novices such as the wearing of make-up and tight or revealingly tight robes, carrying pink purses and having effeminately-shaped eyebrows.
A later popular Japanese legend attributed the introduction of monastic homosexuality to Japan to Shingon founder Kukaialthough scholars now dismiss the veracity of this assertion, pointing out his strict adherence to the Vinaya. Enlightenment being achievable even in a single life. The capacity of Buddhism to reform itself and its great variety of distinct beliefs and schools, provide many liberal streams of Buddhism, which are accepting of all sexual orientations.
Reformist Buddhism is predominant in the west and in some eastern cosmopolitan cities. Sikhism has no written view on the matter, but ina Sikh religious authority described homosexuality as "against the Sikh religion and the Sikh code of conduct and totally against the laws of nature," and called on Sikhs to support laws against gay marriage.
Marriage in Sikhism is seen as a union of souls. In Sikhism, the soul is seen as genderless, and the outward appearance of human beings man, woman is a temporary state.west middlesex university.