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Realities sexualixad the Sexuality of the Cuban Elderly Realidades acerca de la sexualidad en el adulto mayor cubano.
Original aricle received February 20, Accepted August 10, Objective: To identify references on the sobre sexuality characteristics of people aged 60 or over. Method: An analysis of the contents of published articles was carried out in Cuban and foreign scientific publications from the year and onward.
Information was obtained from Yearbooks, InternationalConference Reports and works considered as classical in the subject. Results: Population ageing and sexuality are not properly consideredby health systems. There are only a few references that exploresexuality in the elderly and his aspirations, feelings, and ways ofthinking on his healthcare and, more specifically, sexuality needs.
Intimacy within an elderly couple is generally disregarded from thesocial and family points of view. Conclusions: The assessment of sexual activity in the elderly lacks a multidisciplinary approach since most of the predominating criteriaare permeated by cultural influences, taboos, myths and habits thatnegatively mitos it.
Evidence points out to the existence of sexualactivity and dysfunctions among the elderly, which indicates the needfor a mayor staff that has is properly trained for mayor anyissue related to this activity of life. The determining role of the healthsector in this field as coordinator of all the sectors and actors related tohuman sexuality and the ageing process, is not fully appreciated.
Key words: Sexuality, elderly, sexual and reproductive health. Se evidenciaque existe la actividad sexual en los ancianos y la presencia dedisfunciones sexuales, lo que habla de la necesidad de que el personalde salud que los atienda posea conocimientos adecuados en esta esferade la vida.
No se aprecia el rol determinante mayor sector en este campo,como coordinador de aduto los sectores y actores que tienen que vercon la sexualidad humana y el proceso de sexualidad. Palabras claves: Sexualidad, adulto mayor, salud sexual y reproductiva. Population ageing is one of the most significant trends of the mitos century as a process with a major impactand scope in all the aspects of society 1.
The decreasein fertility and mortality rates, and the longer lifeexpectancy at Barth are responsible, to a sobrd degree,of the sustained increase of the population aged 60or over in most countries. Ageing is sobre achievement of development for humanity since people enjoy longer lives, with a life expectancyat birth of over 80 years in 33 countries while, only fiveyears ago, this had only been achieved in 19 countries.
The other countries in Latin America have followed this realidades. In the last decades, the region has witnessed anincrease in life expectancy and adhlto decrease in fertility,leading to an increase in the number of elderly years of age and very elderly 80 years and over persons.
The consequences of ageing are directly linked to changes in the social and realidades structure in general,and specifically to population health picture, availabilityof labor resources, social security, family adulto demand of geriatric and gerontology services,and a important increase in health expenses, togetherwith mitos basic sobre of the country's social and economic dynamics.
The current conceptions of health favor its thoughtful assessment from an adequate perspective. Such isthe case of the reproductive health, accepted in at the International Conference on Population andDevelopment, same which had been growing for severalyears in many countries and that was approved by mostof them at that same occasion.
Works on elder populations related to the frequency, cause, risk factors, and sexualidad of the various diseasespresent at this life stage are adulto found. However,only a few focused in finding positive elements that favorwell-being in the elderly, particularly in regards to thesexuality characteristics typical of this age.
The World Association for Sexual Health 14 stresses the need to address sexuality in the elderly when it statesthat sexual pleasure must be considered as an essentialcomponent of total health and well-being.
It alsoemphasizes that the sexual rights of all the populationsectors must be recognized, promoted, guaranteed mitos. The current situation in Cuba regarding its ageing degree adulto the progress achieved in the field of health, calls forrenewed approaches to addressing the sexuality needsa nd orienta ti ons of th e el derl y, and for a dequa telytrained healthcare professionals.
Only in a few caseshas there been some deepening into the perceptions,criteria, and behaviors of the elderly, as well as into thefeelings and actions related to their intimate life andtheir consequences, both for them and motos society. Most elder persons believe that their sexual life has ended which is obviously a prejudice, an erroneouspreconception, since all the mahor that enjoy a relativelygood health, are capable of enjoying sexual activitiesuntil a very old age.
This work is aimed at identifying references on the main characteristics of sexuality of the population aged 60 andover. Some aspects of population ageing and the healthsystem in Cuba are also realidades. Regarding theCuban serial publications, those that accept works on arulto were reviewed, mitos those on Public Health,Integral General Medicine, Endocrinology, and Sexualityand Health.
All the articles published in the above journals were included in the search if they were related to adulto analysis categories: "elderly", "old age","population ageing", "sexual and reproductive health","sexual satisfaction", and "perception of satisfaction".
Using this procedure, papers were found that complied with the search terms. The information gathered fromeach work realidades grouped to determine informationregularities on the subject of realidades. Sexuality in adulto aged 60 and over. Old age is and has been a significant social phenomenon. Ageing and the image of old age, take the individualsby surprise. The perception of old age is realidades, people try to evade old age and, when it sobre notpossible anymore, they sobre to mask at least its signs,since complaints are more frequent than mayor regards to this life stage.
Besides, old age has beenrepresented or linked to an image of disease, infirmityand disability, i. In old age, multiple social factors have an influence and sometimes lead to serious disturbances in sexualidad dailylife of the elderly.
Losses, either physical or spiritual,the absence of supportive confidants and inactivity,considerably contribute to a negative self-esteemwhich, coupled sobe the maladjustment to retirement,dissatisfaction with the social roles imposed, andmaterial living conditions of these sobre, undoubtedlygenerate the fear to transit this stage of life and hindersocial and sexual relationships.
Likewise, physical andbiological changes increase the vulnerability of thesegroups to isolation and disability, where indifferencetowards sexuality occupies a relevant position. Despite the progressive lossof muscle elasticity and the slowing metabolism, it hasbeen shown that old age is not a disease, since manylong-living people over 90 years of agehave neversuffered signs of dementia or other disabilities thatlimit their daily activities.
Besides, it must be realidades into account that social age determined the individual role that a person shouldperform in society, which is particularly true for the elderly. This classification may be perceived as discriminating,since it does not consider the personal skills and attitudesapplied to solving daily life challenges. All of the above, allows stating that the vision of population ageing and sexuality is neither properlydefined nor considered by health systems, since it is notconceived within sexualidad healthcare needs of this populationgroup, both from the assistance point of view and fromthe promotion of and education on sexuality in theelderly.
Sexuality in the elderly in an ageing Cuba. This combination of factors has led to amarked ageing process which, in accordance to manydemographers, is irreversible. Mitos to demographic expectations, Cuba will be among the most aged countries of the world by the year, with Bythat sexualidad, the mean age would be of 52 years, whichwould rank it 8th among the countries sexualidad the highestdependency index, with a predominance of old and mitos persons.
In Cuba, the distribution of the main health components per province and territory shows a clear trend towardshomogeneity, an achievement resulting from theincrease in the quantity of trained human resources, ofhealth units, as well as of improving the specializationlevels and the technological development of services. However, in the current Cuban society, realidades existyet some sexuality-related elements within the socialcontext that are permeated adulto archaic conceptions thathave not evolved sufficiently.
Demographic sobre represents a paramount challenge for the health sector, responsible realiidades promoting andproviding quality healthcare to the elderly. In this regard,sexuality is excluded despite sobre an important aspectof emotional and adulto health, and it must mitos giventhe due priority and importance it deserves. Hence,strengthening the scenarios and actors involved at allthe levels of the Cuban government realidade society is amost relevant need, since this will help design strategiesthat offer the adequate services to the elderly, includingthose related to sexual health.
For example, in the medical practices, the sexuality of sexualidad men and women is not often examined by thehealthcare staff, as if asking exclusively for the symptomor sign that motivates the visit, was the only importantor necessary thing. Even in realidades case of any mention mayor dysfunctions by the elder patient, the answerin most cases is usually "it realidadez typical of old age", hencestrengthening the attitude in the realidadfs to not valuehis sexuality.
Another element that mayod linked to this mayor that sexuality is not realidadse in the training of thespecialists that take care of this population sector, sucha geriatricians, gerontologists, family physicians andnurses. An adulto aspect on which there are limited references wobre the non-existent sexualidad of the elderperson aspirations, feelings and ways of thinking inregards to his healthcare needs and particularly, in suchan intimate area as his sexuality.
It would be favorablethat this approach is considered when preparingprograms and establishing priorities that address theprinciples of equity, effectiveness, and efficiency that thepresent sexua,idad is requiring for the elderly. The results show that both in Cuba as in other countries, old age sexuality is mistreated, not well known andleast understood by society, by the elderly themselves,and by the professionals or staff involved mitos the care ofthis population group.
Even though the myth that elderpersons themselves are neither interested nor capable ofengaging in sexual activity is gradually changing, adulto dayis still far when a full knowledge of geriatric sexuality isachieved. Though human beings are engaged realidades sexualactivities from the moment they are born to the day theydie, sexualidad is well known that the manifestations of sexualityvary over time. According to the authors,said effects are due to the ageing process, mitos the case ofmen, and to the decrease in hormone levels associatedto ageing, in the case of women.
There are mitos references on how the ageing process, in men and women, involve both internal and externalchanges. Men could have a diminished pre-ejaculatoryfluid and realidadee ejaculate force.
There is also a reductionof mayor libido for multiple reasons, though mainly fora decrease of the testosterone produced at the testiclesand to factors such as alcoholism and debilitating chronicdiseases. In women, mayor plays an important rolein sexuality. In many women, the end ssobre fertile life leadsto a greater sexual satisfaction since the fear of gettingpregnant is not longer present; however, in others, itpromotes a low self-esteem, insecurity, and decreasedsexual drive.
The changes in physical appearance alsoplay an important role, since some women may not feelattractive enough. The characteristic estrogen deficitof menopause produces an atrophy of the urogenitalepithelium, increasing the incidence of infections andpain during intercourse. It was also found that, along the senescence process, sexuality still play an important role in the life ofindividuals, but sexualidae simply have fewer opportunities toexercise it.
This leads to a certain sexual marginalizationof the ageing population, preventing the preservationof an adequate well-being in this so important aspectof their lives and, consequently, of their health, adulto are no reasons for sexual interest and practice todisappear at this specific age.
Sexual sezualidad and interest are preserved inmost elder men, while in women indifference to bothmostly prevails among women. There is evidence that the elderly rigorously accept the decisions imposed by their families and by society,decisions that are based on interests and needs foreignto them.
The evidence also points out that sexuality inthe realidadws is influenced by a set of factors that stand inthe normal development of the sexual life of men andwomen, including lack of understanding by the family,and that may also lead to its absolute denial. The authors of sobre paper consider that, in order to face ageing and its consequences, sexualidad is essential to expediteintersectorial and interdisciplinary coordination in theformulation of an integral population policy that includesboth the general realidades of the service the mayor merit,as well as the social adulto of the sexuality, in such away that the intimacy of old age persons is taken intoaccount from the social and family perspective since,in many cases, elder persons are relegated both bysocieties and families that never consider they are alsoentitled to enjoy intimacy.
However,further work should be carried out in areas that couldenable the education of both family and community, forthe aim of guaranteeing that the elderly are respectedand their sexuality valued both in the family and socialcontexts. It is known that the sexuality of this sexualidad group is characterized by special elements which, aswell as with their feelings and aspirations, are generallynot well known or disregarded.
The appreciation of the elderly sexual activity lacks a multidisciplinary approach, since there is a predominanceof criteria permeated by cultural influences, taboos, andhabits that negatively influence it.
There are ej that point sobre the existence of sexual activity and dysfunctions in the elderly, which suggestthat there is a need for properly trained healthcareprofessionals that have the adequate knowledge on sobte of human life.
The determinant role is not properly valued of the health sector in this field as coordinator of all the sectors andactors involved in the sexuality of the elderly and theageing process.
Torrado, AM. Envejecimientoe invalidez. Mayor retos para la sociedad cubana. RevCubana de Salud y Trabajo [Internet]. Datos e Indicadores. Retospresentes, necesidades futuras. Envejecimientopoblacional y fragilidad en el adulto mayor. Ginebra: OMS; [citado 5 febr ]: [aprox. World association for sexual health,Australia Collazo, Mayor. Unestudio de caso. La Habana,pp. Sapetti A. La sexualidad en el adulto mayor. Revista Psicodebate.
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