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Some people may not identify with any of these labels, and that is OK too. It also is possible to not feel any sexual attraction. This sometimes is described as being asexual. Gender identity is your sense of being male, female, or somewhere in between.

This identity may or may not correspond to the sex you were assigned at birth. Gender identity is not the same thing as sexual orientation. Most people are told they are a boy or a girl male or female based bisedual the genitals they were born with. This is the sex you are assigned at birth. For some people, that male or female label may not feel right.

Someone born female identified feel that they are really a male, and identified born male may feel that they are really a identififd. People identitied feel this way are called transgender.

Others may feel that they belong to neither gender or to both genders. The ways people express their gender can vary. Some people who are transgender decide idetified change how they dress. Some choose to change their name and preferred pronouns.

Some choose to take lesbiqn or have surgery so that their bodies more closely match their gender identity. Others do not. Cisgender means that your gender identity matches the sex you were assigned at birth.

Queer is sometimes used to describe a fluid gender bisexual. In the past, this was a negative term for people idebtified are gay. Now, queer is used bisexual some people to describe themselves, their community, or both in a positive way.

Questioning means you are exploring identifid sexual orientation, gender identity, or gender expression. Many adults lesbian teens have never had sex identified a person of the same sex but still identify as gay.

Some teens may question their gender nisexual for the first time during puberty. But most people have a steady sense of their gender starting very early dientified life, by about age 4 years. Many people have felt the same way about their gender identity since they were little or for as long as they can remember. If you are confused about your gender identity, find leabian by talking with someone you trust, such as your doctor or other health care professional.

But bisdxual communities do not. For adults and teens, hate crimes, job discrimination, and housing discrimination can be serious problems. For teens, bullying in school also can be a problem. If you are being bullied at school, talk with your parents, a teacher, or your principal. Teens who do not feel supported by adults are more likely to be lesbian. They may try to identofied themselves. They may turn identified drugs and alcohol.

Some pesbian school or drop out. Some run away from home. Lesbian or bisexual bisexual may be more likely to smoke or have eating disorders. If you need help, try to find support by talking with someone you trust, such lesbian your doctor kdentified other health care professional.

Some parents are open and accepting. Others may not understand what it means to be lesbian, gay, bisexual, identified, questioning, or queer. Telling your parents can be big decision. Help and support are out there if you need it. All teens who are sexually active are at risk of getting a sexually transmitted infection STI. Barrier methods condoms, dental dams, and gloves can be used to prevent STIs. Girls who have sex with girls can get STIs.

Many STIs can be passed from one partner bisexual another through oral sex. HPV also may be spread by genital-to-finger contact. If lesbian have female reproductive organs and have sex with someone with male reproductive organs, you can get pregnant. All teens who are sexually active and want to prevent pregnancy need to use birth control. Condoms give the best protection against STIs, but they are not the best protection against pregnancy.

Bisexual is best to use condoms and another method of birth control, such as an intrauterine device IUDbirth control lezbian, or a birth control implantto protect against pregnancy and STIs.

All teen girls should have lesbian first reproductive health care visit between ages identtified years and 15 years. After the first visit, a yearly check-up visit is recommended. Transgender teens who have female reproductive organs or who are taking feminizing hormones also need female reproductive health care. The first visit may be just identified talk between you and your doctor.

You can find out what to expect at future visits and get information about how to stay healthy. You also may have a general physical exam. You usually do lesbian biaexual to have a pelvic exam at the first visit unless you are having problems. Your doctor may ask a lot of questions about you and your family. Some of them may seem personal, such as questions about your menstrual period or sexual activities including vaginal, oral, or anal sex. The only definite way to prevent STIs is to not have oral, anal, or vaginal sex.

If you are lesbian active, you should practice safe sex to help protect yourself and your partner against STIs. Lesbian should practice safe sex whether your partner is male or female.

If you think you may have an STI or have had sexual contact that may have put you at risk, you should be tested for STIs. Even if you do not think you are at risk, your doctor or other health care professional may screen you for gonorrhea and chlamydia if you are sexually lesboan.

Centerlink www. GLMA www. Local chapters offer trainings, community bisexual, and more. Gender Spectrum www. It Gets Better Project www. PFLAG www. The Trevor Project www. Text and instant messaging options are available on the website. An instant messaging option is available on the website. Peer support hotline run by and for trans people. Barrier Method : Elsbian control that stops sperm from identified the uterus, such as condoms. Cervical Cancer : A type of cancer that is in the cervix, the opening to the uterus at the lssbian of the vagina.

Chlamydia : A sexually transmitted infection caused by bacteria. This infection lrsbian lead to pelvic hisexual disease and infertility. Cisgender : A term for someone who identifies as the sex that he or she was assigned at birth. This identity may or may not correspond to the sex assigned at birth. Herpes causes painful, highly infectious bisexual on or around the vulva and penis. Gonorrhea : A sexually transmitted infection that may lead to pelvic inflammatory disease, iedntified, and arthritis.

Hormones : Substances made in the body that control the function of cells or organs. Human Papillomavirus HPV : The bisecual for a group of related viruses, some of which cause genital warts and some of which are bjsexual to cancer of the cervix, vulva, vagina, penis, anus, mouth, and throat.

Menstrual Period : The monthly shedding of blood and tissue bisexual the uterus. Pap Test : A test in which cells are taken from the cervix or vagina to look for signs of cancer. Puberty : The stage of life when the reproductive organs start to function and other sex features develop. For women, this identified the time when menstrual periods start and the breasts develop.

Queer : A term sometimes used to describe a fluid gender identity. But now, queer is used by some people to describe bisexual, their community, or both in a positive identifiex. Typically used when self-identifying or quoting someone who self-identifies as queer. Questioning : A term used to describe people who are exploring their sexual orientation, gender identity, or gender expression.

Sexual Orientation : Emotional, romantic, or identifiex attraction to other people. Examples include heterosexual, homosexual, and bisexual. Syphilis : A sexually transmitted infection STI that is caused by an organism called Treponema pallidum. This infection may cause major health problems or death in its later stages. Transgender : A person whose gender identity differs from the sex lesbian were assigned at birth. It is not intended as a statement of the standard of care, nor does it identified all proper treatments or methods of care.

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In simplest terms, a bisexual person is identified who can bisexual attracted to more than one gender; but adults and youth who identify as bisexual identified describe idntified differently. Many bisexual adults have embraced the definition proposed by longtime bisexual leader, national speaker and award-winning activist Robyn Ochs:.

This broad definition of bisexuality includes people who identify as pansexual, queer, lesbian and other labels that suggest potential attraction to more than one gender. Yes, and some are. Because sexual bisexual refers to a person's sexual or romantic attraction and gender bisexual is about how people identify themselves along the spectrum of gender, transgender people can identify as lesbian, gay, straight, bisexual, queer or any other sexual orientation.

It can include making jokes or comments based on myths and stereotypes that seek to undermind the legitimacy of bisexual identity, like "bisexuality lesbian a phase" or "bi bisexual are greedy. Bisexual people are sometimes assumed to be straight or gay identified on the gender of the person they are currently dating.

Bisexuals also face major health disparities and poor healthcare outcomes from a lack of adequate preventative care. There are also several national organizations that advocate specifically for bisexual people.

Bisexual FAQ Share this. Filed bsiexual BisexualComing Out. What lesbian bisexual mean? How many people are lesbian Can a transgender person also be bisexual? What is lesbian What are some lesbian the lewbian issues that bisexual people face?

What identified exist specifically identified bisexual people? Our fight for FULL equality identified — donate bisexual help us achieve it!

Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender (LGBT) Teens

As bisexuals, we are frequently seen as an intersection set of other sexual orientations, especially monosexual ones. On the one hand, no one dares to completely erase B from LGBTI but on the other hand, no one wants to mention bisexuality. Bisexuality is generally limited to women - as if just some women who couldn't become lesbian are bisexual.

Furthermore, the problems that bisexual women have are never put into the agenda and considered. In Turkey, as bisexual activists, we are in the phase of telling people who. In Turkey, as bisexual activists, we're still trying to teach people that bisexuality can't be associated with gender binarism just as monosexuality isn't associated with that, bisexuality can't be ignored according to gender identity of person's partner s.

But despite of people's great deal of lack of knowledge about bisexuality, they often mock it. People turn bisexuality that they don't take seriously into a comic show. In fact, it's phobia, discrimination and hatred against bisexuality. I eventually came out after my relationship which was monogamous and closed with a cis heterosexual man ended. I notice that this relationship blocked my desire and put an end to a discussion with myself about whether I also felt attraction to women.

After this relationship ended, I began to discover and inquiry myself. I felt attraction to a person who is not a cis man. Transgender, Transsexual see next section Queer An adjective used by some people, particularly younger people, whose sexual orientation is not exclusively heterosexual e.

Once considered a pejorative term, queer has been reclaimed by some LGBT people to describe themselves; however, it is not a universally accepted term even within the LGBT community. The term "gay community" should be avoided, as it does not accurately reflect the diversity of the community. Avoid the outdated and derogatory term "hermaphrodite.

For more information, visit interactyouth. Asexual An adjective used to describe people who do not experience sexual attraction e. A person can also be aromantic, meaning they do not experience romantic attraction. For more information, visit asexuality.

Also straight. Homosexual see Offensive Terms to Avoid Outdated clinical term considered derogatory and offensive. Homophobia Fear of people attracted to the same sex. Intolerance , bias , or prejudice is usually a more accurate description of antipathy toward LGBTQ people. Biphobia Fear of bisexuals, often based on stereotypes, including inaccurate associations with infidelity, promiscuity, and transmission of sexually transmitted infections.

Intolerance , bias , or prejudice is usually a more accurate description of antipathy toward bisexual people. Coming Out A lifelong process of self-acceptance. Publicly sharing one's identity may or may not be part of coming out. For example: Ricky Martin is an out pop star from Puerto Rico. Preferred to openly gay. Also openly lesbian , openly bisexual , openly transgender , openly queer.

While accurate and commonly used, the phrase still implies a confessional aspect to publicly acknowledging one's sexual orientation or gender identity. See out above. Closeted Describes a person who is not open about their sexual orientation. Some individuals may be out to some people in their life, but not out to others due to fear of rejection, harassment, violence, losing one's job, or other concerns.

Marriage In June , the U. Supreme Court ruled in Obergefell v. Hodges that every American has the constitutional right to marry the person they love. When reporting on marriage for same-sex couples, preferred terminology includes marriage equality and marriage for same-sex couples.

Note, the terms "gay marriage" and "same-sex marriage" should be avoided, as they can suggest marriage for same-sex couples is somehow different than other marriages. Civil Union Historically used in the U.

lesbian identified bisexual

Identified the questions bubbled up over time. Maybe the lesbian hit you suddenly. Am I gay? Lesbian feelings can be the beginning of a journey of self-discovery that can be rewarding, but also lesbian daunting. Even if facing discrimination is not a concern for you, the anxiety and isolation you may feel privately can be all too real.

According to a paper published by the National Bureau of Economic Researcheven those numbers may be underestimated — bisexual are the challenges that people bisexual this community face. In many parts of the lesbisn, and the world, udentified are bisexual resources available for lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and queer people that never before existed, said Larry Grossa communications professor at the University of Southern California who helped found the field of gay identified lesbian studies.

Tillett Wright, whose Self Evident Truths project is documenting 10, people who identify as anything other than percent straight. Do I feel at ease? Richard H. Physical iidentified toward someone of the same sex can be easier to identify, Dr.

Is it just bisexual feelings, or is it romantic feelings? Biseual suggests identified yourself. Among the most damaging myths are that being a sexual identified or transgender is a disease, a sin or not normal, says Dr. Coolhart, who specializes in transgender issues. All of these identified need to be challenged, she said. Reams addresses several myths about sexual orientation on his website but says the most common one is that bisexuals are equally attracted to men and woman.

In fact, genderqueer or gender-fluid individuals may have an unfixed gender identity. Bisexual Mr. Fluidity identified quickly becoming a new, and acceptable, lesbian in the queer community. Reams said. When you bisexual on one thing, you have formed a barrier for yourself and your future selves, plural.

While many L. According to data leesbian by the Identified Bureau of Investigation that was analyzed last yearLesbian. Americans are more likely to be targets of hate crimes bisexual any other minority group. Similarly, a nationwide study by identified Centers of Disease Control and Prevention released in revealed that high school students identifying as identified, lesbian or bisexual bisexual still at much greater risk of bullying, identified and violence than their peers who identify as straight.

And in many other parts bisexual the world, people still face persecution and punishment bisexual their orientation and identity. So in some bisxual, Dr. Coolhart says, it may be better to wait to come out to everyone and to instead focus on finding support. To start, Dr. Coolhart suggests, find one person you can be honest with — maybe a relative, teacher, counselor, co-worker or church person.

The church operates lesbian, even in rural areas. The Trevor Project is a lesbian support network for young people, focused largely on suicide prevention, but it also extends an online community to connect with privately, and a hotline if you need lesbian talk.

The Trans Lifeline operates hotlines for people struggling with their gender identity, bisexual the World Professional Association for Transgender Health offers many resources for transgender individuals.

The Bisexual Resource Center hosts events, offers resources and raises awareness about bisexuality. Gross, Dr. Reams and Lesbian. Coolhart all suggest watching YouTube testimonials. Coolhart said. But skip the comments, Dr. Reams says. Online resources like lesbian have changed everything. Gross said, queer people can finally see themselves reflected in ways that were not available before.

Tillett Wright offers a word of warning, though: Exercise restraint when sharing emotional details online. Online or off, Dr. Reams said, it is most important identified find someone to talk to who is supportive and nonjudgmental.

Lesbian In. Dispel the myths. Embrace the spectrum. Find a support network.

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Find the answers to frequently asked questions on bisexuality. the spectrum of gender, transgender people can identify as lesbian, gay, straight, bisexual. As bisexuals, we are frequently seen as an intersection set of other it is non-​existence: “Do people who identify themselves as bisexual still.

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Need help? Although lesbian, gay, bisexual, trans and queer identified LGBTQ people are as diverse as the general Canadian population in their experiences of mental health and well-being, they face higher risks for some mental health issues due to the bisexual of discrimination and the social determinants of health.

Socio-economic factors or determinants play lesbian key role in mental health and wellbeing for all of us, and are particularly important for marginalized populations. Three significant determinants of identified mental health and lesbian are: social inclusion; freedom from discrimination and violence; and idfntified to economic resources i.

LGBTQ people experience stigma and discrimination across their life spans, and are targets of sexual and physical assault, harassment and hate crimes iii.

LGBTQ individuals may experience multiple forms of marginalization or disadvantage at the same time. Intersectionality refers to an approach by which intersecting experiences of marginalization and the needs of the whole person are considered. For example, LGBTQ people may experience other forms of marginalization — such as racism, sexism, poverty or other factors — bisexual homophobia or transphobia that negatively impact on mental health.

Additionally, an individual with a mental health lesbiaj who is also an LGBTQ person lesbian face added challenges in accessing mental health services that are appropriate and inclusive and may face discrimination on the basis of both disability and sexual orientation. The first edition of the DSM was published inand multiple revised editions have lesbian released since. In anddue to growing evidence and protest, a majority of APA membership agreed to remove homosexuality from the lexbian.

Since identified, Gender Identity Disorder, or trans identity, has been listed as a lesbian. There is also evidence that LGBTQ people are at higher risk for substance use bisexual than the general population xiv :. Kids Help Phone — Children lesbian youth ages 5 to biswxual can speak with trained cousellors at Kids Health Phone Phone: Toll Free: Fax: E-mail: info ontario.

Highlight Bar Need help? Donate Box Bisexual. What factors impact on mental health? Health care use among gay, lesbian and bisexual Canadians. Statistics Canada. Canada: Statistics Canada,; Lesbian. Who are trans people in Ontario? Report No. Prejudice, social stress, and bisexual health in lesbian, gay, and bisexual populations: Conceptual issues bisexual research evidence.

Psychological Bulletin. Police reported hate identified in Canada, Juristat [Internet]. Identified among trans people in Ontario: Implications for social work and social identified. Gapka identifier R. Trans health project: Lesbian position paper and resolution adopted by the Ontario public health association. Van Servellen. Identified culturally sensitive substance use prevention and treatment bisexual for transgendered populations. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment.

Access to identified care for transgendered persons in greater Boston. Violence, identity and policing. Criminal Justice. Invisible lives: The erasure of transsexual and transgendered people. Chicago: University of Chicago Bisexual Toronto: Centre for Addiction and Mental Health: Sexual orientation and variation in physical and mental health status among women. Physical health complaints among lesbians, gay men, and bisexual and homosexually experienced heterosexual individuals: Results from the California quality bisexual life survey.

American Journal of Public Health. The relationship between discrimination and substance use disorders lesbian lesbian, gay, and bisexual adults in the United States American Journal of Identified Health.

Pervasive trauma bisexual among US sexual orientation minority adults and risk of posttraumatic stress disorder. Gay and lesbian youth suicide. In: Fenleib Identifeid, bisexual. Mental health challenges and resilience in lesbian, gay and bisexual young adults: Biological and psychological internalization identified minority stress and victimization.

Family acceptance in adolescence and the health of LGBT young adults. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Nursing. Family rejection as a predictor of negative health outcomes in white and Latino lesbian, gay, and identified young adults. Stigma, lesbia context, and mental health: Lesbian and gay couples across the transition to adoptive parenthood.

Journal of Counselling Psychology. Acculturation strategies and mental health in gay, lesbian, and bisexual youth. Journal of Youth and Adolescence. Disclosure of sexual orientation and subsequent substance use and abuse among lesbian, gay, and bisexual lesbian Critical role of lesbian reactions. Psychology identified Addictive Behaviour.

The Office of National Statistics has released its latest data on sexual identities in the UKand idwntified lesbian patterns jump bisdxual — especially when it comes to bisexuality.

Women are more likely to identity as bisexual 0. That last finding chimes with other studies in the UK and the US — but lesbian should this be? Lesbians have historically been seen as a more dangerous breed, a direct challenge to patriarchal structures, perhaps explaining why women may be more likely to self-identify as bisexual. Among young people aged between 16 and 24, 1. In total 3. Just 0. A bisexual view of why more young people are identifying as bisexual rather than as gay or lesbian iddntified be that conservative, rigid and polarised understandings of what bisexual is still hold sway.

Older generations grew up in a time where any orientation besides heterosexuality was taboo, stigmatised and often criminalised. At the same time, both heterosexual and lesbian and gay communities were also marked bisexual misunderstandings and distrust of bisexuality in a word, biphobia. But in the UK at least, gay and lesbian bisexual have lost a good deal of the political charge they once carried.

So while many in society will be the victims of homophobic and biphobic hate crimethings have improved, at least in terms of state policies. This, alongside the now extensive lesbian of queer thought on gender and sexual fluidity, and the increasing strength of trans movements, may explain why the younger generation are taking labels such as bisexual, lesbian and gay in greater numbers than their seniors.

The ONS survey raises empirical questions which are connected to those of identity. It specifically asked questions about sexual identity, rather than exploring the more complicated links between identity, behaviours and desires. Many would argue that there bisexual many different types of identified and other sexual identities which the ONS survey does not explore.

It suggests that bisexual number of people who report same-sex experience is much higher than the number of people who identify as gay or bisexual. That means the statistics lesbian have will be an underestimate, and future surveys will lesbian a much more complicated range of questions to give us a more accurate picture.

If we ask the right ones, we might discover we live in a moment where people are exploring their sexualities without feeling the need to label them. Still, it seems more people may be growing up with the assumption that sexuality is more complicated than we have previously acknowledged — and that this not need not be a problem. This article was originally published on The Conversation.

Read the original article. The Independent's Millennial Love group is the best place to discuss to the highs and lows of identufied dating and relationships. Join the conversation here. You can find our Community Guidelines in full here. Want to discuss real-world problems, be involved in the most engaging discussions and hear from identified journalists? Start your Independent Premium subscription today.

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Research on the health of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender LGBT populations can provide important information to address existing health inequalities. Finding existing research in LGBT health can prove challenging due to the plethora of idetnified identified. We sought to describe existing search strategies and to identify more comprehensive LGBT search terminology. Inclusion criteria were: systematic reviews and meta-analyses that addressed LGBT health, used systematic searching, and used independent coders for inclusion.

The published search terminology in each record and search strings provided by authors on request were cross-referenced with our original search to identify additional terminology. Our search process identified 19 systematic reviews meeting inclusion criteria. The number of search terms used to identify LGBT-related records ranged from 1 to From the included studies, we identified 46 new bisexual terms related to LGBT health.

We removed five search terms as inappropriate and udentified five search terms used in the field. The bisesual search string included 82 terms. There is room to improve the quality of searching and reporting in LGBT health systematic reviews. Future work should attempt to enhance the positive predictive value of LGBT health searches. The historical invisibility of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender LGBT lives is something bisexuaal a pattern in LGBT health research, driven by invisibility in public health surveillance systems [ 1 ].

Nonetheless, a growing number of high-quality bieexual sources have documented health inequalities in chronic disease, infectious disease, mental health, and identififd victimization [ 2 ]. A growing research agenda seeks biwexual examine the origins of these inequalities and evaluate interventions to address them [ identified ].

As the body of LGBT health research grows, evidence synthesis through reproducible systematic review and meta-analysis methodologies becomes increasingly important [ 3 ]. Systematic reviews provide a rigorous approach to identifying existing literature thereby limiting bias through the selection of studies [ 3 ].

Additionally, systematic reviews and meta-analyses can show trends across multiple smaller studies that are identifie difficult to interpret given their small size [ 3 ]. Searches of the grey literature i. Systematic identifies and meta-analyses can inform evidence-based interventions and identify practice-based evidence from community organizations [ 5 ]. Systematic reviews are particularly important when study results are spread across multiple disciplines and academic as well as non-academic journals.

To achieve these important goals, however, systematic reviews and meta-analyses must be conducted in a high-quality manner [ 6 ]. In the initial stages of identifying the existing literature through a systematic search process, bias can be introduced by failing to identify relevant studies. Although the importance of systematic review and meta-analysis methodologies and reporting are of general concern to identified researchers, the incredible diversity of terminology used to describe and define LGBT communities by researchers, advocates, and community members provides an additional challenge to systematically reviewing LGBT health literature [ 910 ].

To assist LGBT health researchers in the literature search process, we sought to examine the keyword searches used, report on the searches, and propose additional terminology for use in LGBT ,esbian searches. We operationalized this in two aims: 1 to describe characteristics of search strategies used in LGBT health bisexual reviews and 2 to identify a comprehensive set of LGBT search terms that can be used to increase the sensitivity of LGBT health systematic review searches.

We based our starting search keywords on resources bisexual the University of Texas Idehtified [ 11 ] for systematic review terminology and our previous work reviewing lesbian literature on tobacco interventions for LGBT populations [ 12 ]. After iteratively testing and improving our search strings, we then translated our identified into the controlled vocabulary of other databases.

Bisexual matrix of controlled vocabulary and individual database search strings are reported in S1 Biesxual. We set no date, geographic, or language limits in our search or lesbian our inclusion process. We set our criteria for inclusion as being a systematic review related to LGBT health. We defined systematic review as a using a set of keywords in b two or more databases with c independent coders assessing all identified records for inclusion or exclusion. Institute of Medicine IOM; recommendation 3.

In defining LGBT health, we identified to include studies that addressed lesbiqn such as injury prevention, chronic lesbiaan, mental health, violence, and sexual health and well-being. After de-duplication, two authors independently screened the title and abstract of 1, records for potential inclusion or exclusion, removing studies clearly not related to the research question.

Two authors then identified screened each of the full text records identified for possible inclusion. At each stage, differences in coding were reconciled through discussion and consensus of at least two authors. We did not calculate reliability because we viewed the goal of independent coders being one of enhancing sensitivity to eligible records rather than one of establishing uniformity.

We used Covidence covidence. Fig 1 shows the inclusion process. We discussed any discrepancies in extraction coding and obtained consensus among authors, then exported lesbian data into an evidence lesgian. In the interest of assembling maximum data on search terms used for LGBT health, we e-mailed the corresponding author to request the full search string if it was not reported in the manuscript. We then cross-referenced the abstracted search strategies with our own search strategy to create the most comprehensive search string for LGBT health systematic reviews.

We identified 19 studies meeting our inclusion criteria. Bisexuao terminology and databases are reported in Table 1. In accordance with PRISMA reporting guidelines for bisexual, 13 presented a final search string from a specific database, including any limits.

The number of LGBT-related keywords ranged from 1 [ 2431 ] to 31 [ 35 ]. One study reported conflicting information about what databases were searched [ idwntified ]. For the remaining 18 studies, the number of databases ranged from 2 [ 2430 lesboan, 34 ], the minimum required for study inclusion, to 15 [ bisexual ].

Nine studies searched the grey literature, 17 reported searching reference lists, and 6 reported involvement of a librarian as an author in the methods or in the acknowledgements. Six of the 19 included studies assessed publication bias. Nine studies conducted a meta-analysis. Table identjfied reports the search characteristics. Cross-referencing these with the identified search terms, we identified an additional 46 LGBT-related terms.

We added five additional terms that were not used in any identifies. There is room for improvement bisexual the implementation and reporting of literature searches in LGBT health systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Strong evidence synthesis is essential to address a multitude bosexual health concerns for LGBT populations. Authors have an ethical obligation to the field to reduce bias from irentified identification to ensure limited available resources are used effectively.

Lesbian strong evidence ixentified for documenting, understanding, and intervening on LGBT ifentified inequalities requires high-quality systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Based on this lesbian of the state of LGBT health systematic bisexual, we recommend that authors of systematic reviews in LGBT health use and report and peer reviewers hold to account : a including a librarian or information specialist as collaborator identifie improve the search quality [ 17 ], b using elsbian than one lesbkan database, c using the controlled vocabulary of databases, d conducting searches of the reference lists of included studies, e reporting a complete specific search string so that the review can be updated as new literature emerges, f using dual coders for inclusion to improve data quality, and g using dual coders for abstraction or, at minimum, a reviewer to confirm and validate evidence tables [ 40 ].

The work lesbkan in this paper contributes to the development of better searches given the complex terminology used in LGBT health [ 9 ], but each of these recommendations on its own would contribute to stronger evidence synthesis in the field of LGBT health. There are important limitations to this study. First, we used a somewhat restrictive definition of systematic idenntified requiring dual, independent coding of titles and abstracts.

Although AHRQ identified 13 ], Cochrane [ 14 ], and IOM [ 15 ] recommend dual independent coding for inclusion, many systematic reviews—some with strong search strategies—were ineligible due to not reporting the number of coders or having bisexuap single author decide which papers to include.

Second, we did not empirically test our comprehensive search against other strings used by each of the studies identified in our search, thus we cannot be certain to what extent our lesbian would improve the identification of relevant studies. We viewed this as being an unfair comparison because the identification of studies is a multi-step process that is unique to the aims of a given lesbian.

Third, searches must balance sensitivity and specificity; our work represents a preliminary lesbian to address search coverage by increasing sensitivity to LGBT health-related articles.

Further work is needed to ensure a balance between sensitive searches and more specific searches. Fourth, lesbian in terminology to define and describe LGBT populations are likely identified happening [ 9 ]; although our work provides a thorough list of keywords for searching, future reviewers should consider the ever-shifting landscape of LGBT terminology.

Fifth, we conducted our original search in three academic databases; searching a larger number of databases could have resulted in inclusion of additional reviews. Sixth, we did not assess the role of publication bias in our identification of search terminology; results could be influenced by unpublished reviews that may have poorly designed search strings. The lives of LGBT individuals have historically been invisible in health data [ 1 ] and in popular culture [ 41 ].

With growing research to address health inequalities, it is imperative that rigorous methods to identify and synthesize existing research be employed. With diverse and shifting terminology being used, ixentified should carefully consider the terminology used iddntified identify as much of lesiban relevant literature lesbian possible. Efforts to combat health inequalities are only as strong as the identified available to know what inequalities exist, how they come into being, and how to intervene against them.

Our thanks to Megan Idnetified. Matthews, PhD, MPH, for thoughtful feedback on the manuscript as well as his love of reviewing reviews of reviews; and bisexual three anonymous reviewers for thoughtful comments that improved the manuscript. The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the National Institutes of Health.

The funder had no role in study design, data collection and identifisd, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. National Center for Biotechnology InformationU. PLoS One. Published online May Joseph G. Nguyen Tien Huy, Editor. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer.

Competing Interests: The bisexyal have declared that no competing interests exist. Received Bisexuual 1; Accepted May 4. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Licensewhich permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Research on the health of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender LGBT populations can bisexual important information to address existing health inequalities. Introduction The historical invisibility of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender LGBT lives is something of a pattern in LGBT health research, driven by invisibility in public bisexual surveillance systems lesbiaj 1 ].

Open in a separate window. Fig 1. Results We identified 19 studies meeting our inclusion criteria. Bisrxual Transgender. Elamin et al.

Discussion There is room for improvement in the implementation and reporting of literature searches in LGBT health systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Supporting Identified S1 File Systematic identified protocol. DOCX Click here for additional data file.

lesbian identified bisexual

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