Wisdom - Wikipedia

Wisdom is One, being a Collection of Quotations From the.



Wisdom Is One: Being a Collection of Quotations from the Sayings and Writings of Some of the Masters and Their Followers, Collated to Show the Fundam

For approximately twenty years the concept of wisdom has received special attention in the psychology literature. Since the 1980's several implicit and explicit definitions of wisdom, several research programs examining the aspects of wisdom, and some descriptions of environments that stimulate the development of wisdom have arisen. The purpose of this article is to provide a critical overview of theories of wisdom and the research done in this field.

Although it has been studied in psychology since the last decades of the twentieth century, we still do not have a clear definition of wisdom. The conceptualizations of wisdom differ in the weight given to cognition and to affect. In most of them wisdom is associated with cognitive competencies (Baltes & Smith, 1990; Kitchener & Brenner, 1990; Meacham, 1990; Sternberg, 1990; 2001a,b); in a smaller number the cognitive dimension is less dominant and wisdom is seen as involving a tight integration of cognition and affect (Kramer, 1990; Pascual-Leone, 1990).

Because of the high level of competencies involved, most theorists posit that wisdom develops with age, thus constituting the ideal aim of human development (Baltes & Smith, 1990; Clayton & Birren, 1980; Erikson, 1959; Holliday & Chandler, 1986, among others).

Most conceptualizations of wisdom are based on popular conceptions (implicit theories, or folk conceptions). From these conceptions (cf. Sternberg, 1990) more explicit theorizing developed 1 .

Publication

Published by the Prometheus Research Group. © Helena Marchand (2003). All rights
reserved.

Contacts

Author: helena [email protected]
Prometheus Research Group: www.prometheus.org.uk.
Editor: [email protected]

For approximately twenty years the concept of wisdom has received special attention in the psychology literature. Since the 1980's several implicit and explicit definitions of wisdom, several research programs examining the aspects of wisdom, and some descriptions of environments that stimulate the development of wisdom have arisen. The purpose of this article is to provide a critical overview of theories of wisdom and the research done in this field.

Although it has been studied in psychology since the last decades of the twentieth century, we still do not have a clear definition of wisdom. The conceptualizations of wisdom differ in the weight given to cognition and to affect. In most of them wisdom is associated with cognitive competencies (Baltes & Smith, 1990; Kitchener & Brenner, 1990; Meacham, 1990; Sternberg, 1990; 2001a,b); in a smaller number the cognitive dimension is less dominant and wisdom is seen as involving a tight integration of cognition and affect (Kramer, 1990; Pascual-Leone, 1990).

Because of the high level of competencies involved, most theorists posit that wisdom develops with age, thus constituting the ideal aim of human development (Baltes & Smith, 1990; Clayton & Birren, 1980; Erikson, 1959; Holliday & Chandler, 1986, among others).

Most conceptualizations of wisdom are based on popular conceptions (implicit theories, or folk conceptions). From these conceptions (cf. Sternberg, 1990) more explicit theorizing developed 1 .

Publication

Published by the Prometheus Research Group. © Helena Marchand (2003). All rights
reserved.

Contacts

Author: helena [email protected]
Prometheus Research Group: www.prometheus.org.uk.
Editor: [email protected]

In Proverbs 1:20-33, we encounter a female character named Wisdom. She is walking through the streets, crying out in a loud voice for people to follow her. Who is this mysterious figure? Some have come to think of Lady Wisdom as a being, a deity in her own right. Others have come to equate her with the feminine side of God or the Holy Spirit. A closer look at Scripture itself reveals to us that Wisdom is not a deity, nor is it the feminine side of God.

Proverbs 8:22 tells us that Wisdom was “begotten” of God…she is part of God’s creation or a “creature.” She then stands aside God as creation is formed, yet she herself is part of creation – the first creation of God. Whereas the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit are eternal, Wisdom has a beginning. As a human being, Jesus is “begotten” however he existed eternally as the Word (Logos). In fact, a heretic in the early Church – Arias – used Proverbs 8:22-25 as part of his argument that Jesus was not really God but was a creature of God’s. Arias did so by equating Wisdom with Jesus. The Church clearly rejected this at the Council of Nicaea in 325 AD.

In essence, Lady Wisdom is a personification of an attribute of God. In Proverbs 9:13, her opposite – Lady Folly – is introduced.

We have many other examples of personification in the Bible. For example, the ruins of Jerusalem (Isaiah 52:9) and the rivers and mountains (Psalm 98:8). To say that Wisdom is not a person but is a personification of an attribute of God is not to take away from the imagery of the feminine which is used so powerfully here. Wisdom literature is telling us plainly that the attribute of wisdom can best be understood through feminine imagery and the traditional roles of women in biblical culture: wife, mother, and teacher. In addition, portraying Wisdom as an alluring woman is designed to make the attribute of wisdom more alluring.

As Christians, this may be the most important question we can ask. Certainly St. Paul thought so. He once declared that if Christ did not…

You won’t find a listing of the Holy Days of Obligation in the Bible because they aren’t there. They aren’t there because they weren’t instituted…

Please enter your email address associated with your Salem All-Pass account, then click Continue. We'll send you an email with steps on how to reset your password.

The paradigms of Israel's religionlaw, prophecy, and wisdomwere not exclusive to Israel but were shared by other ancient Near Eastern cultures. So it was not the form of Israel's religion that made it distinctive, but its content. Wisdom was a common way of thinking in this part of the ancient world. Briefly, it was a way of viewing and approaching life, which involved instructing the young in proper conduct and morality and answering the philosophical questions about life's meaning.

Second, the view of God put forth by Wisdom Literature was God as Creator rather than God as Redeemer, the latter theological construct characterizing law and prophecy. This is evident in the Lord's redemptive Acts of bringing Israel out of Egypt and giving them the land of Canaan. In contrast, wisdom never makes reference to historical events, but rather describes God as Creator of the world. Again, this view is a helpful theological complement to the Redeemer theology of the Torah and Prophets.

The New Testament. In the New Testament the Epistle of James is often considered to incorporate wisdom elements in its practical advice for Christian living. The practical nature of the Beatitudes ( Matt 5:3-12 ) also puts them in a category akin to wisdom. Luke took note that Jesus "grew in wisdom and stature, and in favor with God and men" ( 2:52 ). Perhaps this connotes the practical side of Jesus' teaching, so simple and direct, but it could also include a deeper knowledge of mission and God's purpose of salvation.

Paul compares the wisdom ( sophia [ sofiva ]) of men to a "wisdom that has been hidden and that God destined for our glory before time began" ( 1 Cor 2:6-7 ). The "wisdom of men" was human understanding as compared with the "hidden wisdom of God, " which was a knowledge of God's plan of salvation through Jesus Christ foreordained before the world began. The ultimate manifestation of wisdom was Jesus Christ. Ultimately God revealed his wisdom in the person of his own Son, Jesus Christ ( 1 Corinthians 1:24 1 Corinthians 1:30 ).

Bibliography . C. H. Bullock, An Introduction to the Old Testament Poetic Books ; J. L. Crenshaw, Old Testament Wisdom ; J. H. Walton, Ancient Israelite Literature and Its Cultural Context .

For approximately twenty years the concept of wisdom has received special attention in the psychology literature. Since the 1980's several implicit and explicit definitions of wisdom, several research programs examining the aspects of wisdom, and some descriptions of environments that stimulate the development of wisdom have arisen. The purpose of this article is to provide a critical overview of theories of wisdom and the research done in this field.

Although it has been studied in psychology since the last decades of the twentieth century, we still do not have a clear definition of wisdom. The conceptualizations of wisdom differ in the weight given to cognition and to affect. In most of them wisdom is associated with cognitive competencies (Baltes & Smith, 1990; Kitchener & Brenner, 1990; Meacham, 1990; Sternberg, 1990; 2001a,b); in a smaller number the cognitive dimension is less dominant and wisdom is seen as involving a tight integration of cognition and affect (Kramer, 1990; Pascual-Leone, 1990).

Because of the high level of competencies involved, most theorists posit that wisdom develops with age, thus constituting the ideal aim of human development (Baltes & Smith, 1990; Clayton & Birren, 1980; Erikson, 1959; Holliday & Chandler, 1986, among others).

Most conceptualizations of wisdom are based on popular conceptions (implicit theories, or folk conceptions). From these conceptions (cf. Sternberg, 1990) more explicit theorizing developed 1 .

Publication

Published by the Prometheus Research Group. © Helena Marchand (2003). All rights
reserved.

Contacts

Author: helena [email protected]
Prometheus Research Group: www.prometheus.org.uk.
Editor: [email protected]

In Proverbs 1:20-33, we encounter a female character named Wisdom. She is walking through the streets, crying out in a loud voice for people to follow her. Who is this mysterious figure? Some have come to think of Lady Wisdom as a being, a deity in her own right. Others have come to equate her with the feminine side of God or the Holy Spirit. A closer look at Scripture itself reveals to us that Wisdom is not a deity, nor is it the feminine side of God.

Proverbs 8:22 tells us that Wisdom was “begotten” of God…she is part of God’s creation or a “creature.” She then stands aside God as creation is formed, yet she herself is part of creation – the first creation of God. Whereas the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit are eternal, Wisdom has a beginning. As a human being, Jesus is “begotten” however he existed eternally as the Word (Logos). In fact, a heretic in the early Church – Arias – used Proverbs 8:22-25 as part of his argument that Jesus was not really God but was a creature of God’s. Arias did so by equating Wisdom with Jesus. The Church clearly rejected this at the Council of Nicaea in 325 AD.

In essence, Lady Wisdom is a personification of an attribute of God. In Proverbs 9:13, her opposite – Lady Folly – is introduced.

We have many other examples of personification in the Bible. For example, the ruins of Jerusalem (Isaiah 52:9) and the rivers and mountains (Psalm 98:8). To say that Wisdom is not a person but is a personification of an attribute of God is not to take away from the imagery of the feminine which is used so powerfully here. Wisdom literature is telling us plainly that the attribute of wisdom can best be understood through feminine imagery and the traditional roles of women in biblical culture: wife, mother, and teacher. In addition, portraying Wisdom as an alluring woman is designed to make the attribute of wisdom more alluring.

As Christians, this may be the most important question we can ask. Certainly St. Paul thought so. He once declared that if Christ did not…

You won’t find a listing of the Holy Days of Obligation in the Bible because they aren’t there. They aren’t there because they weren’t instituted…