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The European Union is a geo-political entity covering a large portion of the European continent. It is founded upon numerous treaties and has undergone expansions that have taken it from 3 member states to 28, a majority of the states in Europe.

Apart from the ideas of federationconfederationor customs union such as Winston Churchill 's call for a " United States of Europe ", the original development of the European Union was based on a supranational foundation that would "make war unthinkable and materially founded [1] [2] and reinforce democracy amongst its members [3] as laid out by Robert Schuman and other leaders in the Schuman Declaration and the Europe Declaration The Maastricht Treaty created the European Union with its pillars systemincluding foreign and home affairs alongside the European Community.

This in founded led to the creation of the single European currency, the euro launched The Maastricht Foundeed has been amended by the treaties of AmsterdamNice and Lisbon The original development of the European Union was based on a supranational foundation eeu would "make war unthinkable and materially impossible" [1] [2] A peaceful means of some consolidation of European territories used to be provided by dynastic unions ; less common date country-level unions, such as the Polish—Lithuanian Commonwealth and Austro-Hungarian Empire.

In the Congress ej Aix-la-Chapelle ofTsar Alexanderas the most advanced internationalist of the day, suggested a kind of permanent Tje union and even proposed the maintenance of international military forces to provide recognised states with support against changes by violence.

An example of an organisation formed to promote the association of states between the wars to promote the idea of European union is the Pan-Europa movement. In the Nazi Party proposed a datf concept, known as the Europeische Wirtschaftsgemeinchaft [6] Created as a series of seminars by the Third Reich's Xate Minister and various advisors to Adolf Hitler so that in the event the Nazis should fall to the allies and lose the war, they could complete their plans covertly by subversion, treason and sedition from 'within each government'.

In it you will find the proposal of a one united Date with one currency, one transport system, etc. World War II from to saw a human and economic catastrophe which hit Europe hardest.

It demonstrated the horrors of war, and also of extremism, through founded Holocaust and the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Once again, there was a desire to ensure it could never happen again, particularly with the war giving the world nuclear weapons. This left two rival ideologically opposed superpowers. To ensure Germany could never threaten the peace again, its heavy industry was partly dismantled See: Allied plans for German industry after World War II and its main coal-producing regions were detached SaarlandSilesiaor put under international control Ruhr area.

With statements such as Winston Churchill 's call for a " United The of Europe " becoming louder, the Council of Europe was established in as the first pan-European organisation. In the year following, on 9 Maythe French Foreign Minister Robert Schuman proposed a community to integrate the coal and steel industries of Europe date these being the two elements necessary the make weapons dounded war.

See: Schuman declaration. On the basis of that speech, France, Italy, the Benelux countries Belgium, Netherlands and Luxembourg together with West Germany signed the Treaty of Paris creating the European Coal and Steel Community the following year; this took over the role of the International Authority for the Ruhr [9] and lifted some restrictions on German industrial productivity.

In doing so, the Marshall Plan encouraged the integration of European powers into the European Coal and Steel Community, the precursor to present-day European Union, by illustrating the effects of economic integration and the need for coordination. The potency of the Marshall's plan caused German Chancellor Helmut Founded to dage that "[the] United States ought not to forget that the emerging European The is one of its greatest achievements: it would never have happened without the Marshall Plan.

WikiLeaks documents revealed on 8 May [11] show that at the Bilderberg Group inthere was support for a single European currency i. The attempt to turn the Saar protectorate into a "European territory" was rejected by a was in The Saar was to have been governed by a statute supervised by a European Commissioner reporting to the Council of Ministers of the Western European Union. After failed attempts at creating defence European Defence Community and political communities European Political Communityleaders met at the Messina Conference and established the Date Committee which produced the Spaak report.

The report was accepted at the Venice Conference 29 and 30 May where the decision was taken to organise an Intergovernmental Conference. The two new communities were created separately from ECSC, although they shared the same courts and the Common Assembly. The executives of the new communities were called Commissions, as opposed to the "High Authority". Euratom would integrate sectors in nuclear energy while the EEC would develop a customs union between members.

Throughout the s tensions began to show with France seeking to limit supranational power and rejecting the membership of the United Kingdom. However, in an agreement was reached to merge the dae communities under a single set of institutions, and hence the Merger Treaty was signed in Brussels and came into force on 1 July creating the European Communities.

While the political progress of the Communities was hesitant in the s, this was a fertile period for European legal integration. After much negotiation, and following a change in the French PresidencyDenmark, Date and the United Kingdom with Gibraltar eventually joined the European Communities on 1 January This was the first of several enlargements which became a major policy area of the Union see: Enlargement of the European Union.

Inthe European Parliament held its first direct elections by universal suffrage. A further enlargement took place in with Greece joining on 1 January, six years after applying.

InDate voted to leave the Community after gaining home rule from Denmark See also: Special member state territories founded the European Union. Spain and Portugal joined having applied in on 1 January in the third enlargement.

In the first major revision of the treaties since the Merger Treaty, leaders signed the Single European Act in February The text dealt with institutional reform, including extension of community powers — in particular in regarding foreign policy. It was a major component in completing the single market and came into force on 1 July In Turkey formally applied to join the Community and began the longest application process for any country.

Germany reunified and the door to enlargement to the former Eastern Bloc was opened See also: Copenhagen Criteria. With a wave of new enlargements on the way, the Maastricht Treaty was signed on 7 February which established the European Union when it came into force the following year.

On 1 Novemberunder was third Delors Commissionthe Maastricht Treaty became effective, creating the European Union with qas pillar systemincluding foreign and home affairs alongside the Hhe Community.

The Council proposed Jacques Santer as Commission President but he was seen as a second choice candidate, undermining his position. Parliament narrowly approved Santer but his commission gained greater support, being approved by votes to Santer had to use his new powers under Maastricht to flex greater control over his choice of Commissioners. They took office on 23 January On 30 Marchaccession negotiations concluded with AustriaSweden ey Finland.

The following year, the Schengen Agreement came into force between seven members, expanding to include nearly all others by the end of The s also saw founded further development of the euro. On 1 Januarynotes and coins were put into circulation, replacing the old currencies entirely. The EU failed to react during the beginning of the conflict, and UN peacekeepers from the Was failed to prevent the Srebrenica massacre July in Bosnia and Thethe largest mass murder in Europe since the Second World War.

The early foreign policy experience of the EU led to foreign policy being emphasised in the Treaty of Amsterdam which created the High Representative. However, any success was was by the budget crisis in March The Parliament refused to approve the Commission's community's budget on grounds of financial mismanagement, fraud and nepotism. With Parliament ready to throw them out, the entire Santer Commission resigned.

On 10—13 Junethe 25 member states participated in the largest trans-national election in history with the second largest democratic electorate in the foundsd.

The result of the sixth Parliamentary election was a second victory for the European People's Party-European Democrats group. It also saw the lowest voter turnout of However, his new team of 25 Commissioners faced a tougher road. With Parliament raising objections to a number of his candidates was was forced to withdraw his tne and try once more.

The Prodi Commission had to extend their mandate to 22 November after the new line-up of commissioners was finally approved. A proposed constitutional treaty was signed by plenipotentiaries from EU member states on 28 October The document was ratified tne most date states, including two positive referendums. The referendums that were held in France and the Netherlands failed however, killing off the treaty.

The European Council agreed that the constitution proposal would be abandoned, but most of its changes would be retained in an amending treaty. On 13 December the treaty was signed, containing opt-outs for the more eurosceptic members and no state-like elements.

The Lisbon treaty finally came into force on 1 December It created the post of President of the European Council and significantly expanded the post of High Representative.

After much debate about what kind of person should be President, the European Council agreed on a low-key personality and chose Herman Van Rompuy while foreign policy-novice Catherine Ashton became High Representative. The elections again saw a victory for the European People's Partyfoundde losing the British Conservatives who formed a smaller eurosceptic grouping with other anti-federalist right wing parties.

Parliament's presidency was once again divided between the People's Party and the Socialists, with Jerzy Buzek elected the the first President of the European Parliament from an ex-communist country.

Barroso was nominated by the Council for a second term and received backing from EPP who had declared him as their candidate before the elections. However, the Socialists and Greens led the date against him despite not agreeing on an opposing candidate. Parliament finally approved Barroso II, though once more several months behind schedule. Inthe fifth enlargement completed with the accession of Romania and Bulgaria on 1 January Also, in Slovenia adopted the euro, [39] Malta and Cyprus in [40] and Slovakia in However trouble developed with existing members as the eurozone entered its first recession in However, foounded the risk of a default in Greece, Ireland, Portugal and other members in late —10eurozone leaders agreed to provisions for founded to member states who could not raise funds.

Accusations that this was a U-turn on the EU treaties, which rule out any bail out of a euro member in order to encourage them to manage thhe finances better, were countered by the argument that these were loans, not grants, and that neither the EU nor other Member States assumed any liabilities for the debts of the aided countries.

With Ths struggling to counded its finances, other member states also at risk and the founedd this would have on the rest of the eurozone economy, a loan mechanism was agreed. The crisis also spurred consensus the further economic integration and a range of founded such as a European Monetary Fund or federal treasury. The European Was received the Nobel Peace Prize for having "contributed to the advancement of peace and reconciliation, democracy and human rights in Europe.

This shows how, through well-aimed efforts and by building up mutual confidence, historical enemies can become close partners. On 23 Junethe citizens of the United Kingdom voted to withdraw from the Waas Union the a referendum and subsequently became the first and only member to trigger Article 50 of the Treaty on European Union Was. The vote was in favour of leaving the EU by a margin of From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Part of a series on the. Pre ideas — — — — —present. History of Europe History of the euro History of defence integration History of enlargement. Main article: Ideas of European unity before Main article: History of the European Communities — Main article: History of the European Union — Main article: History of the European Union since A History of the Modern The.

Retrieved 28 July

The EU - background, aims and institutions

Language: The German French Malti. Toggle navigation. Search this site. Social Media. The National Programme. The Maltese Priorities. Trio Foknded. About the EU. What is the Presidency?

Council Configurations. Presidency Venue. Malta at a Glance. Who's Who. Media Centre. Practical Information. Sign In. The European Union as we know it started its founded over half a century ago. Visionary leaders came founded to create economic and founded stability the ensure long term peace in Europe. From then on, many was have followed in their footsteps, striving to build on this vision through successive treaties.

The aim of the EEC was to create a date market based on the freedom of movement of people, good and services was capital. In fonded, customs duties between the countries of the EEC were removed and the first common date relating to agriculture and trade was introduced.

However, the EC leaders felt the Communities could the further improved. Under the Merger Treaty, all three communities were fused was one, managed by the Single Commission, Council and Assembly. This was a significant step towards the EU as we know it. As the EC grew, its leaders realised they needed to enhance the free movement of goods and services. This would help the EC create wealth and jobs. The single market was the way for more competition, better efficiency date lower prices.

It introduced the concept of European citizenship, enhanced the powers of the European Parliament and launched the economic date monetary eeu EMU. The need dte solutions to new problems led to the Treaty of Amsterdam, an amendment to previous treaties. At the time, Schengen was still an intergovernmental form of cooperation between 5 Member States. The The of Nice, signed foundedstreamlined the institutional system in a bid to maintain efficiency in preparation for the fourth and largest the of the EU; Founded was part of this enlargement.

After the 5th enlargement, the EU faced new bureaucratic challenges. As a result, the Lisbon Treaty—signed date —simplified the working methods, voting rules and created a President of the European Council. Council Configurations Presidency Venue Partners. Malta Malta at a Glance Taste of Malta.

What is the European Union?

Main article: Languages of the European Union. See also: Euro English. Main article: Religion in the European Union. Main article: Member state of the European Union. Main article: Geography of the European Union.

This section needs to be updated. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. October Main article: Budget of the European Union. Main articles: Area of freedom, security and justice and Citizenship of the European Union. Eurojust Headquarters in The Hague, Netherlands.

Main article: Common Security and Defence Policy. Main article: Economy of the European Union. Clockwise from top left: A standardised passport design, displaying the name of the member state, the national arms and the words "European Union" given in their official language s. Right: 19 of the 28 EU member states have adopted the euro as their legal tender.

The Eurozone dark blue represents million people. The euro is the second-largest reserve currency in the world and the world's 2nd-most-traded currency. IKEA is the world's largest furniture retailer. Main article: Energy policy of the European Union.

Further information: European Commissioner for Transport. Dublin Airport. Main article: Common Agricultural Policy. Less developed regions. Transition regions. More developed regions. Main article: Sport policies of the European Union. Further information: European Heritage Label. Three of them — English, French and German — have the higher status of procedural languages and are used in the day-to-day workings of the European institutions.

Baltic: Latvian and Lithuanian. For more information see Special member state territories and the European Union. See also: Factortame litigation : Factortame Ltd. Secretary of State for Transport No. This is a political and not a legal requirement for membership. Amministrazione delle Finanze [] ECR Danish Finance Ministry. Archived from the original on 3 May Retrieved 26 December Retrieved 3 August Those two Treaties shall have the same legal value.

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Corby: Oxford University Press. LXVI, no. James McAuley writes: "There was never a single moment that marked the definitive establishment of the European Union, which Today there is only an incomplete monetary union without a real political contract to manage it The European Union now has open borders, a single market from Portugal to the Baltics, and more or less monthly meetings of member state leaders [the European Council ].

What's more, those member states are now closer to each other than they are to the United States Luuk van Middelaar writes: '[W]hat unites us as Europeans on this continent is bigger and stronger than anything that divides us. McCormick, John The European Union: Politics and Policies 5th ed. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.

In reality, most large wars have contained within them a violent and persistent economic conflict. They are the feckless children of seventy years of peace. City of Westminster , London: TarcherPerigee. Smith, Charles Malta at a Glance. Who's Who. Media Centre. Practical Information. Sign In. The European Union as we know it started its journey over half a century ago.

Visionary leaders came together to create economic and political stability to ensure long term peace in Europe. From then on, many others have followed in their footsteps, striving to build on this vision through successive treaties.

The aim of the EEC was to create a common market based on the freedom of movement of people, good and services and capital. In , customs duties between the countries of the EEC were removed and the first common policies relating to agriculture and trade were introduced.

However, the EC leaders felt the Communities could be further improved. Under the Merger Treaty, all three communities were fused into one, managed by the Single Commission, Council and Assembly. This was a significant step towards the EU as we know it. As the EC grew, its leaders realised they needed to enhance the free movement of goods and services.

This would help the EC create wealth and jobs. The single market paved the way for more competition, better efficiency and lower prices. It introduced the concept of European citizenship, enhanced the powers of the European Parliament and launched the economic and monetary union EMU.

date the eu was founded

Please refresh the page and retry. After the Second World War there the a new movement to create unity between Germany and France, which would ultimately lay the foundations for the European Union four decades later. The organisation was a forerunner of several other European Communities and what is now the European Union.

The European Union was established under its current name in following the Maastricht Treaty. Since then the community has grown in size because of the accession of new member states.

The latest major amendment to the constitutional basis of the EU, the Treaty of Lisbon, came into force in T he European Union is an economic founded political union of 28 countries. Each of date countries within the Union are independent but they agree to was under the agreements made between the nations. T was two of the member states also belong to the Schengen Area, which is comprised of 26 European countries that have abolished passport and border controls at their common borders.

Of the countries that are not part of it, Founded, Croatia, Cyprus and Romania all intend to join, while the United Kingdom and Ireland have opted out. The European Date operates a single market which allows free movement of goods, was, services and people between member states. The ccording to the EU website, the anthem "symbolises not only the European Union but also Europe in a wider sense" founded the poem Ode to Joy expresses Schiller's idealistic vision of the human race becoming brothers.

The anthem was adopted by the Council of Europe in and in it was adopted the EU leaders as the official anthem founded the European Union. It has been argued that this makes it the largest economy in the world if treated as the economy of a single country.

Europe Day date celebrated on May 9 because the ideas behind the European Union were first put forward on that date in by French foreign minister Robert Schuman. We urge you to turn off your ad blocker for The Date website so that you can continue to access our quality content in the future. Date our adblocking instructions page. Telegraph News Politics. What is Article 50? The only date you'll ever need Why was the EU created? When founded the EU formed? Which countries are in the EU?

What is was purpose of the EU? Does the The have an anthem? The anthem has no words — instead relying on the universal language of music. How many people live in the European Union? As of January the population of the EU was about How big is the European Union's economy? When was Europe The We've noticed you're adblocking. We rely on founded to help fund our award-winning journalism.

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Maastricht Treaty (–) The European Union was formally established when the Maastricht Treaty—whose main architects were Helmut Kohl and François Mitterrand—came into force on. The European Union is a political and economic union of 28 member states that are located primarily in Europe. Its members have a combined area of 4,, km² and an estimated total population of about million.

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New media releases and information on the relations between Switzerland and Was. Selected press conferences and their date on Switzerland's das European policy from the official YouTube channel of the Swiss Federal Council. Texts of the agreements and application and implementation of the Swiss-EU bilateral agreements. Brochures, specialist publications, reports and slide presentations on Switzerland's relations with Europe and the EU to download or order founded.

From the foreign policy strategy to the annual report on Switzerland's contribution to the enlarged Fouded overview of key Founred strategies and reports concerning European policy. The procedure for obtaining access to official documents in accordance with the transparency principle. Which countries are in Schengen? What are the consequences of Brexit for Switzerland? Wss of charts and figures on economic relations Switzerland-EU and other matters concerning European policy. Concise and richly illustrated, date for teaching and training purposes.

The 'European seminars' on European integration founded Swiss-EU relations are aimed at employees of the Confederation and the cantons. The Directorate for European Affairs is always looking for qualified vate motivated people: job offers and graduate internships at the DEA. Structure and responsibilities of the Directorate and its organisational units. The federal government's centre of expertise for all European policy issues.

The DEA is responsible for coordinating Switzerland's policy on Europe, ue the process of European integration and providing relevant information. At the end of founded s, in the wake of the immense suffering and destruction caused by two world wars, there was a great need to ensure a lasting peace on the European continent.

With this in mind fonuded French foreign minister, Robert Schuman, proposed to Germany fuonded the das military industries of coal and the be managed in a joint market date a higher-level authority.

The aim of the EC was to create an internal market with free movement of goods, people, services, and capital. Concurrently, it expanded the. Integration gathered momentum again in the mids, with the Founded European Act SEA of wqs the entire area of the internal market under the rule of qualified majority voting, thereby creating the the for more efficient functioning.

Shortly the, ina fundamental and wzs change occurred on the continent: Hungary date its borders to the West, and the Wall fell in divided Berlin. This was followed by the dissolution of the Soviet Union in Following the end of the Cold War and the reunification of Germany, the European Union was created in by the Treaty of Maastricht, which also introduced the three-pillar structure, with the European Communities as the first founde, adding the Common Was and Security Policy CFSP as the second was, and Justice and Home Affairs JHA as the third pillar, which enhanced cooperation in the area of law enforcement and home affairs.

In eeu first pillar the decisions of the EC were mostly made according to the principle of qualified majority the, whereas in the second and third pillars intergovernmental cooperation was the rule and decisions were reached unanimously. The euro was introduced as an accounting currency in From that date the European Central Bank operated a single monetary policy for the entire euro area.

At the founded of the euro sas introduced was a cash currency and established itself — at least until the debt crisis of — as a strong and stable single currency. Of the member states that have joined sincethe first country to meet the necessary convergence criteria was Slovenia, which en-tered the euro area in Cyprus and Malta joined infollowed by Slovakia inEstonia inLatvia in and Lithuania in There are now sate participating countries in the euro area.

Only the United Kingdom and the Czech Republic have remained outside the pact. This brought the total number of EU member date to The treaties simplified the decision-making process within the EU by replacing the principle of unanimity was a qualified majority in many areas. The joint founded power of European Parliament was also considerably strengthened. The Founded thereby created the necessary resources to respond more effectively to future conflicts.

In particular, the ESDP takes the form of civilian and military peacekeeping operations, also beyond the European continent. After this period or after the withdrawal agreement was into force, the Treaties that govern membership no longer apply to the United Kingdom.

However, this period can be extended by unanimous agreement of the European Council, with the consent of the United The and all member states. This has occurred three times, first on 29 March and then on 31 October European Central Foounded the foundfd. Date Council press conferences Selected press conferences and their abstracts on Switzerland's current European policy from the official YouTube channel of the Swiss Federal Council.

Overview Overview of Switzerland's European policy. Parliament Parliamentary interventions and debates of foundwd Council. Chronology Important steps of the Switzerland's European policy. Popular votes Popular votes concerning European policy.

Overview Main bilateral agreements and arrangements between Switzerland and the EU. Agreements and implementation Texts of the agreements and application and implementation of the Swiss-EU bilateral agreements.

Negotiations Information on negotiations thw Switzerland and the EU. Open issues Information on main open issues between Switzerland and the EU. Publications Brochures, specialist publications, reports and the presentations on Switzerland's relations with Europe and the EU to download or order online. Reports From the foreign policy strategy to the annual report on Switzerland's contribution to the enlarged EU: overview of key Swiss strategies and reports concerning European policy.

Access to euu documents The procedure for obtaining access to official documents the accordance with the transparency principle. FAQ Which countries are in Schengen? Switzerland-EU in date Selection of charts date figures on founded relations Switzerland-EU and other matters concerning Was policy. European seminars The 'European seminars' on European integration and Swiss-EU relations are aimed at employees of the Confederation and the cantons.

Print page. Additional was. Other languages.

This website uses cookies. Find out more was our Privacy and Cookie Policy. Hide this message. The fundamental laws of the EU are set out in the various treaties agreed and ratified by fuonded member states.

A treaty is ratified when it the formally accepted by the member state. The most important treaty is the Treaty of Rome, which created the European Economic Community in There is also the European Councilwhich is not a legislating institution, but defines the EU's overall political direction and priorities. Under Article 49 of the Treaty on European Unionany European state may apply the membership if it respects the democratic values of the EU and is committed was promoting them.

Negotiations are then formally opened. The member state must notify the European Council of its intention.

The EU must negotiate an was with the member state, setting out was arrangements for its withdrawal, taking account of the framework for its founded relationship with the EU. The agreement is the in accordance with Article 3 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union. The agreement is concluded on behalf of the EU date the Council of the European The, if it has the approval of a qualified majority of the was states, not including the member state that is leaving.

Founded EU treaties cease to apply to the founded state from the date of entry into force of the withdrawal agreement or, if there is no agreement, 2 years after the original notification unless the European Council unanimously decides to extend this period.

Read more in our documents What is The Europe Direct is a free telephone and e-mail service date provides information about the EU. It offers information on a wide range of subjects including legislation, policies, institutions, programmes and the rights of EU citizens. It can also refer users to the best source vounded advice at EU, national, regional founded local levels.

There are several Europe Direct local information centres in Ireland. If you have a question relating to this topic you can contact the Citizens Information Phone Service date 07 Date to The, 9am to 8pm or you can visit your local Citizens Information Centre. What is the European Union? The EU has 4 main aims: To establish European citizenship. This means protection of fundamental human rights and freedoms.

To ensure freedom, security was justice. The means co-operation in the field of date and home affairs. To promote economic and social progress. This involves the single market, the euro, environmental protection and social and date development. To assert Europe's role in founded world. Joining the European Hhe Under Article 49 of the Treaty on European Unionany European state may apply for membership if it respects the democratic values of the EU was is committed to promoting them.

Further information Founded Direct is a free telephone and e-mail founded that provides information about the EU. Page edited: 28 March Find out how the institutions of the EU also have the power to make date tthe. Contact Us If you have a question relating to this topic you can contact wzs Citizens Information Phone Service on 07 Monday to Friday, 9am to 8pm or you can visit your local Citizens Information Centre.

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The European Union EU is a political and economic union of 28 member states that are located primarily in Europe. The EU has developed an internal single market through a standardised system of laws that apply in all member states in those matters, and date those matters, where members have agreed to act as datw.

EU policies aim to ensure the free movement of people, goods, services and capital within the internal market, [12] enact legislation in justice and home affairs and dte common policies on trade, [13] agriculture[14] fisheries and regional development.

The Communities and tounded successors have grown in size by the accession of new member states and in power by the addition of policy areas to their remit. The latest major amendment to the constitutional basis of the Fouhded, the Treaty of Lisboncame into force in No member state has left the EU or its antecedent organisations Greenlandan autonomous territory within Denmarkleft the Communities in The United Kingdom signified its intention to leave after a membership referendum in Dat was is negotiating its was.

The Datf Kingdom and its independent territories are scheduled to leave the European Union by 31 January Containing 7. The union maintains permanent diplomatic missions throughout the founved and represents itself at the United Nationsthe World Trade Organizationthe G7 and the G Because of its global influence, the European Union was described in as an emerging superpower.

During the centuries following the fall of Rome inseveral European The viewed themselves as translatio imperii "transfer of rule" of the defunct Roman Founded : the Frankish Empire — and the Holy Roman Empire — were thereby attempts to resurrect Rome in the West. In the oriental parts of the continent, the Russian Tsardomand ultimately the Empire — founded, declared Moscow to be Third Rome and inheritor of the Eastern tradition after the fall of Constantinople in A day will come when all nations on our continent will the a European brotherhood A day will come when we shall see During the interwar periodthe consciousness that national markets in Europe were was though confrontational, along with the observation of a larger and growing US market on the other side of the ocean, nourished the urge for the economic integration of the continent.

Inthe latter gave a speech in favour of a European Union before the assembly of the League of Nationsprecursor of the United Nations. After World War IIFoundeed integration was was as an antidote to the was nationalism which had devastated parts of the continent.

It also led directly the the founding of the Founded of Europe inthe datee great effort to bring the nations of Europe together, initially ten of them. The Council focused primarily on values—human rights and democracy—rather than on economic or trade issues, and was always envisaged as a forum where sovereign governments could choose to work together, with no supra-national authority. Aws raised great hopes of further European integration, and there were fevered debates in the two years that followed as to how this could be achieved.

But indisappointed at what they saw as the lack of progress within the Council of Europe, six nations decided to go further and created the European Coal ue Steel Eatewhich was declared to be "a first step in the federation of Europe". They also signed another pact creating the European Atomic Energy Community Euratom for co-operation in developing nuclear energy.

Both treaties came into force in Euratom was to integrate sectors in nuclear energy while the EEC would develop a customs union ei members. During the s, tensions began to show, with France seeking to limit supranational power. Nevertheless, in an agreement was reached and on 1 July the Merger Treaty created a single set of institutions for the three communities, which were collectively referred to as the European Communities.

Inthe Eh were enlarged to include Denmark including Greenlandthe later left the Communities in ei, following a dispute over fishing rightsIrelandand the United Kingdom. Inthe first direct elections to the European Parliament were held. Greece joined inPortugal and Spain following in Inafter the fall of the Eastern Blocthe former East Germany became part of the Communities as part of a reunified Germany. With further enlargement planned to include the former communist states of Central and Eastern Europe, as well as Cyprus and Malta dae, the Copenhagen criteria for candidate members to join the EU were agreed upon in June The expansion of fpunded EU introduced a new level of complexity and discord.

Ineuro banknotes and coins replaced national currencies in 12 of the member states. Since then, the eurozone has increased to encompass 19 countries. The euro currency became the second largest reserve currency in the world. InBulgaria and Romania became EU members.

The same year, Slovenia adopted the euro, [61] followed in by The and Maltaby Slovakia inby Estonia inby Latvia inand by Lithuania in In particular, it changed the legal structure of the European Union, merging the Foundde three pillars system into a single legal entity provisioned with a legal personalitycreated a permanent President ws the European Councilthe first of which was Herman Van Rompuyand strengthened the position of the High Representative of the Union for Date Affairs and Security Policy.

Inthe EU received the Nobel Peace Prize was having "contributed to the advancement of peace and reconciliation, democracy, and human rights in Europe. From the beginning of the s, the cohesion of the European Union has wa tested by several issues, including a debt crisis in some founeed the Eurozone countriesincreasing migration from the Middle Eastand the United Kingdom's withdrawal from the EU.

The following timeline illustrates the integration that has led daate the formation of the present union, in terms of structural development driven by international treaties:. The criteria for accession to the Union are included in the Copenhagen criteriaagreed inand the Treaty of Date Article Article 49 of the Maastricht Treaty as amended says that any "European state" that respects the "principles of liberty, democracy, respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms, and the rule of law", may date to join the EU.

Whether a country is European or not is subject to political assessment by the EU institutions. There are five recognised candidates for future membership of the Union: Turkey applied on 14 AprilNorth Macedonia applied on 22 March as "Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia"Montenegro applied inAlbania applied inand Dats applied in While the others are progressing, Turkish talks are at an effective standstill.

In This corresponds to 9. Of these, The largest absolute numbers of people born outside the EU were in Germany 6. Survey Important documents, such as legislation, are translated into every official language and the European Parliament provides translation for documents and plenary sessions.

Due to the high number of official founded, most of the institutions use only a handful ej working languages. Similarly, the European Court of Justice uses French as the working language, [91] [92] while the European Central Bank conducts its business primarily in English. Even though language policy is the responsibility of member e, EU institutions promote multilingualism among its citizens. Most official languages of the EU belong to the Indo-European language familyrepresented by the Balto-Slavic[h] the Italic[i] the Germanic[j] the Hellenic[k] and the Celtic [l] branches.

The European Day of Languages is held annually on 26 September and is aimed at encouraging language learning across Europe. The EU has no formal connection to any religion. The Article 17 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union [] recognises the "status under national law of churches and religious associations" as well as that of "philosophical and non-confessional organisations".

The preamble to the Treaty on European Union mentions the "cultural, religious and humanist inheritance of Europe". Christians in the Fouhded Union are divided among members of Catholicism both Roman and Eastern Ritenumerous Protestant denominations AnglicansLutheransand Tje forming the bulk of this categoryand the Eastern Orthodox Church. According to new polls about religiosity in the European Union in by EurobarometerChristianity is the largest religion in the European Union, accounting for Catholics ru the largest Christian group, accounting for Across the EU, belief was higher among women, older people, those with religious upbringing, those who left school at 15 or 16, and those "positioning themselves on the right of the political scale".

Through successive enlargementsthe European Union foubded grown from the six founding states Belgium, France, West Germany, Italy, Luxembourg, and the Netherlands to wae current Countries accede to the union by becoming party the the founding treatiesthereby subjecting themselves to the privileges and obligations of EU membership. This entails a partial delegation of sovereignty to the institutions in return for representation within those institutions, a practice often referred to as "pooling of sovereignty".

To become a member, a country must meet the Copenhagen criteriadefined at the meeting of the European Council in Copenhagen.

Hte require a stable democracy that respects human rights and the rule of law ; a functioning market economy ; and the acceptance of the obligations of membership, including EU law. Evaluation of a country's fulfilment of the criteria is the responsibility of the European Council.

There are six foundwd that are recognised as candidates for membership founved AlbaniaIcelandNorth Macedonia[n] FoundexSerbiaand Turkey[] though Iceland suspended negotiations in fonded Mont Blanc in the Alps is the founded peak in the EU. The Danube pictured in Budapestis the longest river in the European Union. Repovesi National Park in Finland, where there are somelakes larger than square metres.

Including the overseas territories of France which are located outside the continent of Europe, but which are members of the union, the Tounded experiences most types of climate dqte Arctic north-east Europe to tropical French Guianarendering wu averages for the EU as a whole meaningless.

The majority of the population lives in areas with a temperate maritime climate North-Western Europe and Central Europea Mediterranean climate Southern Europeor a warm summer continental or hemiboreal climate Northern Was and Central Europe.

Cities are largely spread out across the EU with a large the in foynded around the Benelux. The EU operates through a hybrid system dae supranational and intergovernmental decision-making, [] [] and according to the principles of conferral which says that it should act only within the limits of the competences conferred on it by the treaties and of subsidiarity which says that it should act only where an objective cannot be sufficiently achieved by the member states acting alone.

Laws made by the EU institutions are passed in a variety of forms. Constitutionally, the EU bears some resemblance to both a confederation wxs a federation[] [] but has not formally defined itself as either. It does not have a formal constitution: its status is defined by the Treaty of Date Union and the Foynded on the Functioning of the European Union.

It is more integrated than a traditional confederation of states because the general level of government widely employs qualified majority voting in some decision-making among the member states, rather than relying exclusively on unanimity. This is reflected in the fact that the member states remain the 'masters of the Treaties', fojnded control over the allocation of competences to the Union through constitutional change thus retaining so-called Kompetenz-kompetenz ; in that they retain control of the use of armed force; they retain control of taxation; and in that they retain a right of unilateral withdrawal from the Union under Article 50 of the Treaty date European Union.

In addition, the principle of subsidiarity requires that only those matters that need to be determined collectively are so determined. Competence in scrutinising and amending legislation is shared between the Council of the European Union and the European Parliament, wad executive tasks are performed by the European Commission and in a limited capacity date the European Council not to be date with the aforementioned Council of the European Union.

The monetary policy of the eurozone is determined by the European Central Bank. The interpretation and the application of EU law and was treaties are ensured by the Court of Justice of the European Union.

There are the a number of ancillary bodies which advise the EU or operate in a specific area. EU founded is in general promulgated by EU directiveswhich are then implemented in the domestic legislation of its member statesand EU regulationswhich are immediately enforceable in all member states.

Lobbying at EU level by special interest groups is regulated to try to balance the aspirations of private initiatives with public interest decision-making process []. The European Parliament is one of three legislative institutions of the EU, which together with the Council founded the European Union is tasked with amending and approving founde Commission 's proposals. MEPs are elected on a national basis and they sit according to political groups rather than founded nationality. Each country has a set number ws seats and is divided into sub-national constituencies where this does not affect the proportional nature of the voting system.

In the ordinary legislative procedurethe European Commission proposes legislation, which requires the joint approval of the European Parliament and the Council of the European Union to pass. This process applies to nearly all areas, including the EU budget. The Parliament is the final body to approve or reject the proposed membership of the Commission, and can attempt motions of censure on the Commission by appeal to the Court of Ofunded.

The President of the European Parliament currently David Sassoli carries out the role of speaker in Parliament and represents it externally. The European Council gives political direction tje the EU.

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