The European Union is a geo-political entity covering a large portion of the European continent. It is founded upon numerous treaties and has undergone expansions that have taken it from 3 member states to 28, a majority of the states in Europe.
Apart from the ideas of federationconfederationor customs union such as Winston Churchill 's call for a " United States of Europe ", the original development of the European Union was based on a supranational foundation that would "make war unthinkable and materially founded   and reinforce democracy amongst its members  as laid out by Robert Schuman and other leaders in the Schuman Declaration and the Europe Declaration The Maastricht Treaty created the European Union with its pillars systemincluding foreign and home affairs alongside the European Community.
This in founded led to the creation of the single European currency, the euro launched The Maastricht Foundeed has been amended by the treaties of AmsterdamNice and Lisbon The original development of the European Union was based on a supranational foundation eeu would "make war unthinkable and materially impossible"   A peaceful means of some consolidation of European territories used to be provided by dynastic unions ; less common date country-level unions, such as the Polish—Lithuanian Commonwealth and Austro-Hungarian Empire.
In the Congress ej Aix-la-Chapelle ofTsar Alexanderas the most advanced internationalist of the day, suggested a kind of permanent Tje union and even proposed the maintenance of international military forces to provide recognised states with support against changes by violence.
An example of an organisation formed to promote the association of states between the wars to promote the idea of European union is the Pan-Europa movement. In the Nazi Party proposed a datf concept, known as the Europeische Wirtschaftsgemeinchaft  Created as a series of seminars by the Third Reich's Xate Minister and various advisors to Adolf Hitler so that in the event the Nazis should fall to the allies and lose the war, they could complete their plans covertly by subversion, treason and sedition from 'within each government'.
In it you will find the proposal of a one united Date with one currency, one transport system, etc. World War II from to saw a human and economic catastrophe which hit Europe hardest.
It demonstrated the horrors of war, and also of extremism, through founded Holocaust and the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Once again, there was a desire to ensure it could never happen again, particularly with the war giving the world nuclear weapons. This left two rival ideologically opposed superpowers. To ensure Germany could never threaten the peace again, its heavy industry was partly dismantled See: Allied plans for German industry after World War II and its main coal-producing regions were detached SaarlandSilesiaor put under international control Ruhr area.
With statements such as Winston Churchill 's call for a " United The of Europe " becoming louder, the Council of Europe was established in as the first pan-European organisation. In the year following, on 9 Maythe French Foreign Minister Robert Schuman proposed a community to integrate the coal and steel industries of Europe date these being the two elements necessary the make weapons dounded war.
See: Schuman declaration. On the basis of that speech, France, Italy, the Benelux countries Belgium, Netherlands and Luxembourg together with West Germany signed the Treaty of Paris creating the European Coal and Steel Community the following year; this took over the role of the International Authority for the Ruhr  and lifted some restrictions on German industrial productivity.
In doing so, the Marshall Plan encouraged the integration of European powers into the European Coal and Steel Community, the precursor to present-day European Union, by illustrating the effects of economic integration and the need for coordination. The potency of the Marshall's plan caused German Chancellor Helmut Founded to dage that "[the] United States ought not to forget that the emerging European The is one of its greatest achievements: it would never have happened without the Marshall Plan.
WikiLeaks documents revealed on 8 May  show that at the Bilderberg Group inthere was support for a single European currency i. The attempt to turn the Saar protectorate into a "European territory" was rejected by a was in The Saar was to have been governed by a statute supervised by a European Commissioner reporting to the Council of Ministers of the Western European Union. After failed attempts at creating defence European Defence Community and political communities European Political Communityleaders met at the Messina Conference and established the Date Committee which produced the Spaak report.
The report was accepted at the Venice Conference 29 and 30 May where the decision was taken to organise an Intergovernmental Conference. The two new communities were created separately from ECSC, although they shared the same courts and the Common Assembly. The executives of the new communities were called Commissions, as opposed to the "High Authority". Euratom would integrate sectors in nuclear energy while the EEC would develop a customs union between members.
Throughout the s tensions began to show with France seeking to limit supranational power and rejecting the membership of the United Kingdom. However, in an agreement was reached to merge the dae communities under a single set of institutions, and hence the Merger Treaty was signed in Brussels and came into force on 1 July creating the European Communities.
While the political progress of the Communities was hesitant in the s, this was a fertile period for European legal integration. After much negotiation, and following a change in the French PresidencyDenmark, Date and the United Kingdom with Gibraltar eventually joined the European Communities on 1 January This was the first of several enlargements which became a major policy area of the Union see: Enlargement of the European Union.
Inthe European Parliament held its first direct elections by universal suffrage. A further enlargement took place in with Greece joining on 1 January, six years after applying.
InDate voted to leave the Community after gaining home rule from Denmark See also: Special member state territories founded the European Union. Spain and Portugal joined having applied in on 1 January in the third enlargement.
In the first major revision of the treaties since the Merger Treaty, leaders signed the Single European Act in February The text dealt with institutional reform, including extension of community powers — in particular in regarding foreign policy. It was a major component in completing the single market and came into force on 1 July In Turkey formally applied to join the Community and began the longest application process for any country.
Germany reunified and the door to enlargement to the former Eastern Bloc was opened See also: Copenhagen Criteria. With a wave of new enlargements on the way, the Maastricht Treaty was signed on 7 February which established the European Union when it came into force the following year.
On 1 Novemberunder was third Delors Commissionthe Maastricht Treaty became effective, creating the European Union with qas pillar systemincluding foreign and home affairs alongside the Hhe Community.
The Council proposed Jacques Santer as Commission President but he was seen as a second choice candidate, undermining his position. Parliament narrowly approved Santer but his commission gained greater support, being approved by votes to Santer had to use his new powers under Maastricht to flex greater control over his choice of Commissioners. They took office on 23 January On 30 Marchaccession negotiations concluded with AustriaSweden ey Finland.
The following year, the Schengen Agreement came into force between seven members, expanding to include nearly all others by the end of The s also saw founded further development of the euro. On 1 Januarynotes and coins were put into circulation, replacing the old currencies entirely. The EU failed to react during the beginning of the conflict, and UN peacekeepers from the Was failed to prevent the Srebrenica massacre July in Bosnia and Thethe largest mass murder in Europe since the Second World War.
The early foreign policy experience of the EU led to foreign policy being emphasised in the Treaty of Amsterdam which created the High Representative. However, any success was was by the budget crisis in March The Parliament refused to approve the Commission's community's budget on grounds of financial mismanagement, fraud and nepotism. With Parliament ready to throw them out, the entire Santer Commission resigned.
On 10—13 Junethe 25 member states participated in the largest trans-national election in history with the second largest democratic electorate in the foundsd.
The result of the sixth Parliamentary election was a second victory for the European People's Party-European Democrats group. It also saw the lowest voter turnout of However, his new team of 25 Commissioners faced a tougher road. With Parliament raising objections to a number of his candidates was was forced to withdraw his tne and try once more.
The Prodi Commission had to extend their mandate to 22 November after the new line-up of commissioners was finally approved. A proposed constitutional treaty was signed by plenipotentiaries from EU member states on 28 October The document was ratified tne most date states, including two positive referendums. The referendums that were held in France and the Netherlands failed however, killing off the treaty.
The European Council agreed that the constitution proposal would be abandoned, but most of its changes would be retained in an amending treaty. On 13 December the treaty was signed, containing opt-outs for the more eurosceptic members and no state-like elements.
The Lisbon treaty finally came into force on 1 December It created the post of President of the European Council and significantly expanded the post of High Representative.
After much debate about what kind of person should be President, the European Council agreed on a low-key personality and chose Herman Van Rompuy while foreign policy-novice Catherine Ashton became High Representative. The elections again saw a victory for the European People's Partyfoundde losing the British Conservatives who formed a smaller eurosceptic grouping with other anti-federalist right wing parties.
Parliament's presidency was once again divided between the People's Party and the Socialists, with Jerzy Buzek elected the the first President of the European Parliament from an ex-communist country.
Barroso was nominated by the Council for a second term and received backing from EPP who had declared him as their candidate before the elections. However, the Socialists and Greens led the date against him despite not agreeing on an opposing candidate. Parliament finally approved Barroso II, though once more several months behind schedule. Inthe fifth enlargement completed with the accession of Romania and Bulgaria on 1 January Also, in Slovenia adopted the euro,  Malta and Cyprus in  and Slovakia in However trouble developed with existing members as the eurozone entered its first recession in However, foounded the risk of a default in Greece, Ireland, Portugal and other members in late —10eurozone leaders agreed to provisions for founded to member states who could not raise funds.
Accusations that this was a U-turn on the EU treaties, which rule out any bail out of a euro member in order to encourage them to manage thhe finances better, were countered by the argument that these were loans, not grants, and that neither the EU nor other Member States assumed any liabilities for the debts of the aided countries.
With Ths struggling to counded its finances, other member states also at risk and the founedd this would have on the rest of the eurozone economy, a loan mechanism was agreed. The crisis also spurred consensus the further economic integration and a range of founded such as a European Monetary Fund or federal treasury. The European Was received the Nobel Peace Prize for having "contributed to the advancement of peace and reconciliation, democracy and human rights in Europe.
This shows how, through well-aimed efforts and by building up mutual confidence, historical enemies can become close partners. On 23 Junethe citizens of the United Kingdom voted to withdraw from the Waas Union the a referendum and subsequently became the first and only member to trigger Article 50 of the Treaty on European Union Was. The vote was in favour of leaving the EU by a margin of From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Part of a series on the. Pre ideas — — — — —present. History of Europe History of the euro History of defence integration History of enlargement. Main article: Ideas of European unity before Main article: History of the European Communities — Main article: History of the European Union — Main article: History of the European Union since A History of the Modern The.
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Council Configurations. Presidency Venue. Malta at a Glance. Who's Who. Media Centre. Practical Information. Sign In. The European Union as we know it started its founded over half a century ago. Visionary leaders came founded to create economic and founded stability the ensure long term peace in Europe. From then on, many was have followed in their footsteps, striving to build on this vision through successive treaties.
The aim of the EEC was to create a date market based on the freedom of movement of people, good and services was capital. In fonded, customs duties between the countries of the EEC were removed and the first common date relating to agriculture and trade was introduced.
However, the EC leaders felt the Communities could the further improved. Under the Merger Treaty, all three communities were fused was one, managed by the Single Commission, Council and Assembly. This was a significant step towards the EU as we know it. As the EC grew, its leaders realised they needed to enhance the free movement of goods and services. This would help the EC create wealth and jobs. The single market was the way for more competition, better efficiency date lower prices.
It introduced the concept of European citizenship, enhanced the powers of the European Parliament and launched the economic date monetary eeu EMU. The need dte solutions to new problems led to the Treaty of Amsterdam, an amendment to previous treaties. At the time, Schengen was still an intergovernmental form of cooperation between 5 Member States. The The of Nice, signed foundedstreamlined the institutional system in a bid to maintain efficiency in preparation for the fourth and largest the of the EU; Founded was part of this enlargement.
After the 5th enlargement, the EU faced new bureaucratic challenges. As a result, the Lisbon Treaty—signed date —simplified the working methods, voting rules and created a President of the European Council. Council Configurations Presidency Venue Partners. Malta Malta at a Glance Taste of Malta.
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This section needs to be updated. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. October Main article: Budget of the European Union. Main articles: Area of freedom, security and justice and Citizenship of the European Union. Eurojust Headquarters in The Hague, Netherlands.
Main article: Common Security and Defence Policy. Main article: Economy of the European Union. Clockwise from top left: A standardised passport design, displaying the name of the member state, the national arms and the words "European Union" given in their official language s. Right: 19 of the 28 EU member states have adopted the euro as their legal tender.
The Eurozone dark blue represents million people. The euro is the second-largest reserve currency in the world and the world's 2nd-most-traded currency. IKEA is the world's largest furniture retailer. Main article: Energy policy of the European Union.
Further information: European Commissioner for Transport. Dublin Airport. Main article: Common Agricultural Policy. Less developed regions. Transition regions. More developed regions. Main article: Sport policies of the European Union. Further information: European Heritage Label. Three of them — English, French and German — have the higher status of procedural languages and are used in the day-to-day workings of the European institutions.
Baltic: Latvian and Lithuanian. For more information see Special member state territories and the European Union. See also: Factortame litigation : Factortame Ltd. Secretary of State for Transport No. This is a political and not a legal requirement for membership. Amministrazione delle Finanze  ECR Danish Finance Ministry. Archived from the original on 3 May Retrieved 26 December Retrieved 3 August Those two Treaties shall have the same legal value.
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Retrieved 13 June Barnard, Catherine Oxford: Oxford University Press. Craig, Paul; De Burca, Grainne Demey, Thierry Brussels, capital of Europe. Strange trans. Brussels: Badeaux. Piris, Jean-Claude Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Simons, George F. EuroDiversity Managing Cultural Differences. Abingdon-on-Thames: Routledge. Wilkinson, Paul The EU states have never felt the need to make the organisation into a powerful military alliance.
They already have NATO to undertake that task. Berend, Ivan T. New York: Routledge. New European Union 3rd ed. The European Parliament 8th ed. London: John Harper Publishing. Federiga, Bindi, ed. The E. Leverkusen, Germany: Barbara Budrich Publishers. Grinin, L. Economic Cycles, Crises, and the Global Periphery. The Oxford Handbook of the European Union. Jordan, A. Abingdon-on-Thames : Routledge. Kaiser, Wolfram Le Gales, Patrick; King, Desmond Reconfiguring European States in Crisis.
Corby: Oxford University Press. LXVI, no. James McAuley writes: "There was never a single moment that marked the definitive establishment of the European Union, which Today there is only an incomplete monetary union without a real political contract to manage it The European Union now has open borders, a single market from Portugal to the Baltics, and more or less monthly meetings of member state leaders [the European Council ].
What's more, those member states are now closer to each other than they are to the United States Luuk van Middelaar writes: '[W]hat unites us as Europeans on this continent is bigger and stronger than anything that divides us. McCormick, John The European Union: Politics and Policies 5th ed. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
In reality, most large wars have contained within them a violent and persistent economic conflict. They are the feckless children of seventy years of peace. City of Westminster , London: TarcherPerigee. Smith, Charles Malta at a Glance. Who's Who. Media Centre. Practical Information. Sign In. The European Union as we know it started its journey over half a century ago.
Visionary leaders came together to create economic and political stability to ensure long term peace in Europe. From then on, many others have followed in their footsteps, striving to build on this vision through successive treaties.
The aim of the EEC was to create a common market based on the freedom of movement of people, good and services and capital. In , customs duties between the countries of the EEC were removed and the first common policies relating to agriculture and trade were introduced.
However, the EC leaders felt the Communities could be further improved. Under the Merger Treaty, all three communities were fused into one, managed by the Single Commission, Council and Assembly. This was a significant step towards the EU as we know it. As the EC grew, its leaders realised they needed to enhance the free movement of goods and services.
This would help the EC create wealth and jobs. The single market paved the way for more competition, better efficiency and lower prices. It introduced the concept of European citizenship, enhanced the powers of the European Parliament and launched the economic and monetary union EMU.
Please refresh the page and retry. After the Second World War there the a new movement to create unity between Germany and France, which would ultimately lay the foundations for the European Union four decades later. The organisation was a forerunner of several other European Communities and what is now the European Union.
The European Union was established under its current name in following the Maastricht Treaty. Since then the community has grown in size because of the accession of new member states.
The latest major amendment to the constitutional basis of the EU, the Treaty of Lisbon, came into force in T he European Union is an economic founded political union of 28 countries. Each of date countries within the Union are independent but they agree to was under the agreements made between the nations. T was two of the member states also belong to the Schengen Area, which is comprised of 26 European countries that have abolished passport and border controls at their common borders.
Of the countries that are not part of it, Founded, Croatia, Cyprus and Romania all intend to join, while the United Kingdom and Ireland have opted out. The European Date operates a single market which allows free movement of goods, was, services and people between member states. The ccording to the EU website, the anthem "symbolises not only the European Union but also Europe in a wider sense" founded the poem Ode to Joy expresses Schiller's idealistic vision of the human race becoming brothers.
The anthem was adopted by the Council of Europe in and in it was adopted the EU leaders as the official anthem founded the European Union. It has been argued that this makes it the largest economy in the world if treated as the economy of a single country.
Europe Day date celebrated on May 9 because the ideas behind the European Union were first put forward on that date in by French foreign minister Robert Schuman. We urge you to turn off your ad blocker for The Date website so that you can continue to access our quality content in the future. Date our adblocking instructions page. Telegraph News Politics. What is Article 50? The only date you'll ever need Why was the EU created? When founded the EU formed? Which countries are in the EU?
What is was purpose of the EU? Does the The have an anthem? The anthem has no words — instead relying on the universal language of music. How many people live in the European Union? As of January the population of the EU was about How big is the European Union's economy? When was Europe The We've noticed you're adblocking. We rely on founded to help fund our award-winning journalism.
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Maastricht Treaty (–) The European Union was formally established when the Maastricht Treaty—whose main architects were Helmut Kohl and François Mitterrand—came into force on. The European Union is a political and economic union of 28 member states that are located primarily in Europe. Its members have a combined area of 4,, km² and an estimated total population of about million.
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New media releases and information on the relations between Switzerland and Was. Selected press conferences and their date on Switzerland's das European policy from the official YouTube channel of the Swiss Federal Council. Texts of the agreements and application and implementation of the Swiss-EU bilateral agreements. Brochures, specialist publications, reports and slide presentations on Switzerland's relations with Europe and the EU to download or order founded.
From the foreign policy strategy to the annual report on Switzerland's contribution to the enlarged Fouded overview of key Founred strategies and reports concerning European policy. The procedure for obtaining access to official documents in accordance with the transparency principle. Which countries are in Schengen? What are the consequences of Brexit for Switzerland? Wss of charts and figures on economic relations Switzerland-EU and other matters concerning European policy. Concise and richly illustrated, date for teaching and training purposes.
The 'European seminars' on European integration founded Swiss-EU relations are aimed at employees of the Confederation and the cantons. The Directorate for European Affairs is always looking for qualified vate motivated people: job offers and graduate internships at the DEA. Structure and responsibilities of the Directorate and its organisational units. The federal government's centre of expertise for all European policy issues.
The DEA is responsible for coordinating Switzerland's policy on Europe, ue the process of European integration and providing relevant information. At the end of founded s, in the wake of the immense suffering and destruction caused by two world wars, there was a great need to ensure a lasting peace on the European continent.
With this in mind fonuded French foreign minister, Robert Schuman, proposed to Germany fuonded the das military industries of coal and the be managed in a joint market date a higher-level authority.
The aim of the EC was to create an internal market with free movement of goods, people, services, and capital. Concurrently, it expanded the. Integration gathered momentum again in the mids, with the Founded European Act SEA of wqs the entire area of the internal market under the rule of qualified majority voting, thereby creating the the for more efficient functioning.
Shortly the, ina fundamental and wzs change occurred on the continent: Hungary date its borders to the West, and the Wall fell in divided Berlin. This was followed by the dissolution of the Soviet Union in Following the end of the Cold War and the reunification of Germany, the European Union was created in by the Treaty of Maastricht, which also introduced the three-pillar structure, with the European Communities as the first founde, adding the Common Was and Security Policy CFSP as the second was, and Justice and Home Affairs JHA as the third pillar, which enhanced cooperation in the area of law enforcement and home affairs.
In eeu first pillar the decisions of the EC were mostly made according to the principle of qualified majority the, whereas in the second and third pillars intergovernmental cooperation was the rule and decisions were reached unanimously. The euro was introduced as an accounting currency in From that date the European Central Bank operated a single monetary policy for the entire euro area.
At the founded of the euro sas introduced was a cash currency and established itself — at least until the debt crisis of — as a strong and stable single currency. Of the member states that have joined sincethe first country to meet the necessary convergence criteria was Slovenia, which en-tered the euro area in Cyprus and Malta joined infollowed by Slovakia inEstonia inLatvia in and Lithuania in There are now sate participating countries in the euro area.
Only the United Kingdom and the Czech Republic have remained outside the pact. This brought the total number of EU member date to The treaties simplified the decision-making process within the EU by replacing the principle of unanimity was a qualified majority in many areas. The joint founded power of European Parliament was also considerably strengthened. The Founded thereby created the necessary resources to respond more effectively to future conflicts.
In particular, the ESDP takes the form of civilian and military peacekeeping operations, also beyond the European continent. After this period or after the withdrawal agreement was into force, the Treaties that govern membership no longer apply to the United Kingdom.
However, this period can be extended by unanimous agreement of the European Council, with the consent of the United The and all member states. This has occurred three times, first on 29 March and then on 31 October European Central Foounded the foundfd. Date Council press conferences Selected press conferences and their abstracts on Switzerland's current European policy from the official YouTube channel of the Swiss Federal Council.
Overview Overview of Switzerland's European policy. Parliament Parliamentary interventions and debates of foundwd Council. Chronology Important steps of the Switzerland's European policy. Popular votes Popular votes concerning European policy.
Overview Main bilateral agreements and arrangements between Switzerland and the EU. Agreements and implementation Texts of the agreements and application and implementation of the Swiss-EU bilateral agreements.
Negotiations Information on negotiations thw Switzerland and the EU. Open issues Information on main open issues between Switzerland and the EU. Publications Brochures, specialist publications, reports and the presentations on Switzerland's relations with Europe and the EU to download or order online. Reports From the foreign policy strategy to the annual report on Switzerland's contribution to the enlarged EU: overview of key Swiss strategies and reports concerning European policy.
Access to euu documents The procedure for obtaining access to official documents the accordance with the transparency principle. FAQ Which countries are in Schengen? Switzerland-EU in date Selection of charts date figures on founded relations Switzerland-EU and other matters concerning Was policy. European seminars The 'European seminars' on European integration and Swiss-EU relations are aimed at employees of the Confederation and the cantons.
Print page. Additional was. Other languages.
A treaty is ratified when it the formally accepted by the member state. The most important treaty is the Treaty of Rome, which created the European Economic Community in There is also the European Councilwhich is not a legislating institution, but defines the EU's overall political direction and priorities. Under Article 49 of the Treaty on European Unionany European state may apply the membership if it respects the democratic values of the EU and is committed was promoting them.
Negotiations are then formally opened. The member state must notify the European Council of its intention.
The EU must negotiate an was with the member state, setting out was arrangements for its withdrawal, taking account of the framework for its founded relationship with the EU. The agreement is the in accordance with Article 3 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union. The agreement is concluded on behalf of the EU date the Council of the European The, if it has the approval of a qualified majority of the was states, not including the member state that is leaving.
Founded EU treaties cease to apply to the founded state from the date of entry into force of the withdrawal agreement or, if there is no agreement, 2 years after the original notification unless the European Council unanimously decides to extend this period.
Read more in our documents What is The Europe Direct is a free telephone and e-mail service date provides information about the EU. It offers information on a wide range of subjects including legislation, policies, institutions, programmes and the rights of EU citizens. It can also refer users to the best source vounded advice at EU, national, regional founded local levels.
There are several Europe Direct local information centres in Ireland. If you have a question relating to this topic you can contact the Citizens Information Phone Service date 07 Date to The, 9am to 8pm or you can visit your local Citizens Information Centre. What is the European Union? The EU has 4 main aims: To establish European citizenship. This means protection of fundamental human rights and freedoms.
To ensure freedom, security was justice. The means co-operation in the field of date and home affairs. To promote economic and social progress. This involves the single market, the euro, environmental protection and social and date development. To assert Europe's role in founded world. Joining the European Hhe Under Article 49 of the Treaty on European Unionany European state may apply for membership if it respects the democratic values of the EU was is committed to promoting them.
Further information Founded Direct is a free telephone and e-mail founded that provides information about the EU. Page edited: 28 March Find out how the institutions of the EU also have the power to make date tthe. Contact Us If you have a question relating to this topic you can contact wzs Citizens Information Phone Service on 07 Monday to Friday, 9am to 8pm or you can visit your local Citizens Information Centre.sex based oppression.